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THE AIM of the present volume is to offer to 
members of our English Church a coliection of 
the best sacred Latin poetry, such as they shall be able 
entirely and heartily to accept and approve — a collection, 
that is, in which they shall not be evermore liable to 
have the current of their sympathies checked, by coming 
upon that, which, however beautiful as poetry, out of 
higher respects they must reject and condemn — in which, 
too, they shall not fear that snares are being laid for 
them, to entangle them unawares in admiration for ought 
which is inconsistent with their faith and fealty to their 
own spiritual mother. Such being the idea of the volume 
it is needless to say that all hymns which in any way 
imply the Roman doctrine of transubstantiation are ex- 
cluded. In like manner all are excluded, which involve 
any creature-worship, or which speak of the Mother of 
our Lord in any other language than that which Scripture 
has sanctioned, and our Church adopted. So too all 
asking of the suffrages of the saints, all addresses to the 
Cross calculated to encourage superstition, that is, in 
which any value is attributed to the material wood in 


which it is used otherwise than in the Epistles of St. 
Paul, namely, as a figure of speech by which we ever 
and only understand Him that hung upon it ; ail these 
have been equally refused a place. 

Nor is it only poems containing positive error which 
I have counted inadmissible ; but I have not willingly 
given room to any which breathe a spirit foreign to that 
tone of piety which the English Church desires to cherish 
in her children ; for I have always felt that compositions 
of this character may be far more hurtful, may do far 
more to rob her of the affections, and ultimately of the 
allegiance, of her children, than those in which error and 
opposition to her teaching take a more definite and 
tangible shape. Nor surely can there be a more serious 
mistake, than to suppose that we have really ' adapted ' 
such works to the use of her members, when we have 
lopped off here and there a few offensive excrescences, 
while that far more potent, because far subtler and more 
impalpable, element of a life which is not her life remains 
interfused through the whole. 

Having thus in a manner become responsible for all 
which appears in this volume, I may be permitted to 
observe, that I do not thereby imply that there may not 
be in it, here and there, though very rarely indeed, a 
phrase which will claim the interpretation of charity. 
The reader will in such a case remember how unfair it is 


to try the theological language of the middle ages by the 
greater strictness and accuracy which the struggles of the 
Reformation rendered necessary. Thus, for us at this 
day to talk of any ' merits ' save those of Christ, after all 
that the Reformation has won for us, would involve a 
conscious and a deliberate falling away from a sole and 
exclusive reliance upon His work. But it was a different 
thing once, and such language might quite be used by 
one who had implicitly an entire affiance on the work of 
Christ for him as the ultimate ground of his hope ; and 
who only waited to have the truth, which with some 
confusion he held and lived by, put before him in accu- 
rate form, to embrace it henceforth and for ever, not only 
with heart, as he had done already, but with the under- 
standing as well. 

Nor is it impossible that there may have found 
admission here one or two poems which some, whom I 
should greatly have desired altogether to carry with me 
in my selection, may not wish had been away. It is one 
of the mischiefs which Rome has entailed upon the whole 
Western Church, even upon those portions of it now 
delivered from her yoke, that she has rendered suspicious 
so much, which, but for her, none could have thought 
other than prontable and edifying. She has compelled 
those, who before everything else would be true to God's 
Word, oftentimes to act in the spirit of Hezekiah, when 


he said ' Nehushtan ' to the very l sign of salvation ' * — 
to the Brazen Serpent itself. Yet granting that the 
superstitious, and therefore profane, hands which she has 
laid on so much, must sometimes make it our wisdom to 
abridge ourselves of our rightful liberty in things which 
otherwise and but for her we might have freely and pro- 
fitably used, there is still a limit to these self-denials : 
and unless we are determined to set such a limit, there 
is no point of bareness and nakedness in all of imagi- 
native and symbolic in worship and service, which we 
might not reach ; even as some Reformed Churches, 
which have not shewn the mingled moderation and 
firmness, that have in these matters so wonderfully 
characterized our own, have impoverished themselves far 
more than was need. 

Of course, those who consider that the whole medi- 
eval theology is to be ignored and placed under ban — 
that nothing is to be learned from it, or nothing but 
harm — those I must expect to disapprove, not merely of 
a small matter or two in the volume, but of it altogether ; 
for the very idea of the book rests on the assumption 
that it is worth our while to know what the feelings of 
these ages were — what the Church was doing during a 
thousand years of her existence \ — on the assumption also 
that the voices in which men uttered then the deepest 

1 ~%v\x$o\ov (rcoTTipfas, Wisd. xvi. 


things of their hearts, will be voices in which we may 
also utter and embody the deepest things of our own. 
For myself, I cannot but feel that we are untrue to our 
position as a Church, that is, as an historic body, and 
above all to our position as members of a Reformed 
Church, when we thus wish to dissever, as far as we may, 
the links of our historic connexion with the past. We 
should better realize that position, if we looked at those 
middle ages with the expectation (which the facts would 
abundantly justify) of finding the two Churches, which 
at the Reformation disengaged themselves from one 
another, in the bosom of the Church w T hich was then — 
if we looked at those ages, not seeking (as sometimes is 
done, I cannot but feel most unfairly, in regard to earlier 
times) to claim them as Protestant, but as little conced- 
ing that they were Romanist. It were truer to say that 
in what is distinctly Roman we have the residuum of 
the middle-age Church and theology, the lees, after all, 
or well nigh all, the wine was drained away. But in the 
medieval Church we have the wine and the lees together 
— the truth and the error — the false observance, and yet 
at the same time the divine truth which should one day 
be fatal to it, side by side. Good were it for us to look 
at those ages, tracing gladly the footsteps of the Re- 
formers before the Reformation ; and feeling that it is 
our duty, that it is the duty of each successive age of 


the Church, as not to accept the past in the gross, so 
neither in the gross to reject it ; since rather by our 
position as the present representatives of that eternal 
body, we are bound to recognize ourselves as the right- 
ful inheritors of all the good and true which ever has 
been done or said within it. Nor is this all : but if our 
position mean anything, we are bound also to believe 
that to us, having the Word and the Spirit, the power has 
been given to distinguish things which differ, — that the 
sharp sword of judgment has been placed in our hands, 
whereby to sunder between the holy and profane, — that 
such a breath of the Almighty is now and evermore 
breathing over His Church, as shall enable it, boldly 
and with entire trust that He will winnow for it, to 
exclaim, ' What is the chaff to the wheat ? ' Surely it is 
our duty to believe that to us, that to each generation 
which humbly and earnestly seeks, will be given that 
enlightening Spirit, by whose aid it shall be enabled to 
read aright the past realizations of God's divine idea in 
the visible and historic Church of successive ages, and to 
distinguish the human imperfections, blemishes, and 
errors, from the divine truth which they obscured and 
overlaid, but which they could not destroy, being one 
day rather to be destroyed by it; and, distinguish- 
ing these, as in part to take warning from and to 
shun, so also in part to live upon and to love, that 


which in word and deed the Church of the past has 
bequeathed us. 

In this sense, — namely, that there is here that which 
we may live on and love, as well as that which we must 
shun and leave, I have brought together the poems of 
this present volume, gathering out the tares, which yet I 
could recognize but as the accident of this goodly field, 
and seeking to present to my brethren that only which I 
had confidence would prove wholesome nutriment for 
souls. Undoubtedly there are tares enough in the field 
out of which these sheaves have been gathered, if a man 
will seek them, if he should believe that it is his occu- 
pation to do so ; which yet I have not believed to be 
mine. And I have published this volume, because, 
granting a collection made upon these principles to be 
desirable, it appears to me that it has not yet been made ; 
that those which we possess still leave room for such a 
one as the present What need is there, for example, 
that the Vem\ Redemptor Gentium, or the Dies Irce, or 
any other of these immortai heritages of the universal 
Church, should be presented to us as part or parcel of 
the Roman or any other breviary? They were not 
written for these ; their finding a place in these is their 
accident, and not their essence. Why then should they 
be offered, as coming through channels, and with asso- 
ciations linked to them, which can scarcely fail to make 


them distasteful to many ? Not to say that, while pieces 
of sacred Latin verse drawn from such obvious sources 
have been published again and again — and not only the 
good, but very often much with this of very slightest 
worth, — other noblest compositions, whether contem- 
plated as works of art, or from a more solemn point of 
view, have been left unregarded and apparently unknown. 
And even were this not the case, the poems here 
offered in a collected form, are many of them only to be 
found, as scholars familiar with the subject will perfectly 
know, one here, one there, in costly editions of the 
Fathers or medieval writers, or in collections of very 
rarest occurrence. The extreme difficulty I have myself 
experienced in obtaining several of the books which I 
desired to use, and the necessity under which I have 
remained of altogether foregoing the use of some that I 
would most gladly have consulted, have sufficiently shewn 
me how little obvious they can be to most readers. 
Often too the poems one would care to possess are lost 
amid a quantity of verse of little or no value ; or mixed 
up with much which, at least for purposes such as the 
present volume is intended to serve, the reader would 
much prefer to have away. They are to be met too, for 
the most part, without those helps for their profitable 
study which they so greatly require — with no attempt to 
bring them into relation with the theology of their own 


or of an earlier day, which at once they illustrate, and 
from which alone many of their allusions can be ex- 

Of the notes with which I have sought to supply this 
last deficiency, I will say at once that, had I followed 
my own inclinations, I should much have preferred not 
to add any of these. But the longer I was engaged with 
these poems, the more I was struck with the extent to 
which they swarmed with Scriptural and patristic allusions, 
yet such as oftentimes one might miss at a first or second 
perusal, or, unless they were pointed out, might overlook 
altogether. I felt how many passages there were, which, 
without some such helps, would remain obscure to many 
readers ; or at any rate would fail to yield up to them all 
the riches of meaning which they contained ; and that 
an Editor had no right to presume that particular kind of 
knowledge upon their parts, which should render an 
explanation of these superfluous. Thus none, I trust, 
will take ill the space, often large, bestowed on the elu- 
cidation of these typical allusions with which many of 
these poems so much abound. Whatever the absolute 
worth of the medieval typology may be, its relative worth 
is considerable, giving us the insight it does into the 
habits of men's thoughts in those ages, and the aspects 
under which they were wont to contemplate the Holy 
Scriptures, and the facts of which these are the record. 


Nor may we forget that, however the Old Testament 
typology is now little better than a wreck, considered as 
abranch of scientific theology, — the capricious and often- 
times childish abuse which has been made of it having 
caused many to regard the whole matter with distrust and 
aversion, yet has it, as we are sure, a deep ground of 
truth \ one unaffected by the fact that we have been at so 
little pains accurately to determine its limits, or the laws 
which are to guide its application, and have thus left it 
open to such infinite abuse. 

In the arrangement of the poems two ways seemed 
open to me. I might either follow the chronological 
order, which would have had a most real value of its 
own ; or else dispose the several poems according to an 
inner scheme, and thus combine them, as it were, anew 
into one great poem. To the choice of this last plan I 
was directed by the idea on which this volume is con- 
structed. Had I desired first and mainly to illustrate 
the theology of successive epochs by the aid of their 
hymns, or to trace the rise and growth of Latin ecclesi- 
astical poetry, the other or chronological would have 
been plainly the method to adopt ; in the same way as, 
had I presented these poems as docutnents, I should not 
have felt myself at liberty to make the omissions which I 
have occasionally made in some, with no loss I believe 
to the reader, and without which their length, or some 


flaw more serious still, might have excluded them from 
the volume. But the personal and the devotional being 
my primary objects, and all else merely secondary, it 
was plain that the order to be followed was such as 
should best assist and further the end I had specially in 

That occasional liberty of omission which I have 
used — by which I mean, not so much presenting the 
fragments of a poem, as thinning it — is not so perilous 
an interference with the unity, and thus the life, of 
medieval, as it would be of many other, compositions. 
Form these writers thought of but little ; and were little 
careful to satisfy its requirements. Oftentimes indeed 
the instincts of Art effectually wrought in them, and 
what they put forth is as perfect in form as it is in spirit. 
But oftentimes, also, the stanzas, or other component 
parts of some long poem, jostle, and impair the effect of, 
one another. It is evident that the writer had not 
learned the painful duty of sacrificing parts to the 
interests of the whole ; perhaps it had never dawned on 
him that, in all higher art, there is such a duty, and one 
needing continually to be exercised. And when this is 
done for him, which he would not do for himself, the 
effect is like that of thinning some crowded and over- 
grown forest. There is gain in every respect; gain in 
what is taken away, gain for what remains ; so at ieast it 


has seemed to me when, on more than one occasion, I 
have used the knife, or even the axe, of excision. 

It is my earnest desire and prayer that there may 
be nothing found in these pages with which wise and 
understanding children of our own spiritual mother 
might justly be offended ; that there may be many things 
found therein for edification and profit. If only I have 
attained this, I shall abundantly be rewarded for some 
anxious and laborious hours, which the preparation of 
this volume has cost me. 

Itchenstoke : Jan. 1849. 


SINCE the former edition of this volume was pub- 
lished, now fifteen years ago, several collections of 
Sacred Latin Poetry have appeared. The most important 
of these are the following : — Mone, Latcinische Hyninen 
des Miitelalters, 1853 ; in the second and third volumes, 
1854, 1855, the title is changed to Hynini Latini Medii 
ALvi. Daniel has added two supplementary volumes (a 
fourth and fifth) to his Thesanras Hynmologicas^ 1855, 
1856. Dr. Neale has followed up his Seqae?itice, 1852, 


with. a series of articles in the Ecclesiologisi ; while M. 
Gautier has given to the world Les CEuvres Poetiques 
tfAdamdeS. Vidor, 1858, 1859. 

Mone's is on the whole a disappointing work. The 
notes seem at first sight full of promise ; but 011 closer 
inspection they prove rather appendages to the text, 
than elucidations of it; still, his illustrations of the 
Latin hymns from the Greek service books are often 
novel and interesting. Daniel by his later volumes has 
increased the obligation under which all lovers of the 
old hymnology already lay to him ; and for myself I 
must praise his magnanimity, that in reprinting a con- 
siderable body of my notes and prefaces, he has not 
excluded some in which I had spoken severely of certain 
small inaccuracies and errors in his earlier volumes. I 
rejoice to hear that a new edition of his Thesaurus, such 
as, it may be hoped, will fuse his five volumes into a 
harmonious whole, is preparing. Later in this volume I 
take occasion to speak of the happy discovery, by 
Gautier, of a large number of Adam of St. Victor's 
hitherto unpublished hymns. The edition of Adam's 
poetical works, which in consequence of this discovery 
he has given to the world, is wanting in accurate scholar- 
ship, does little to help to an understanding of the poet ; 
but has, notwithstanding, been gratefully welcomed by 
all to whom this poet is dear. The too-favourable 

xviii PREFA CE 

manner in which Dr. Neale has expressed himself in 
regard of any contributions of mine to the knowledge of 
the Latin hymnology makes it difficult for me to say 
merely the truth about his own. I will only, therefore, 
mention that by patient researches in almost all European 
lands, he has brought to light a multitude of hymns un- 
known before ; that in a treatise on Seguences, properly so 
called, reprinted in his Essays on Liturgiology, pp. 357- 
390, he has for the first time explained their essential 
character ; while to him the English reader owes versions 
of some of the best hymns, such as often successfully 
overcome the almost insuperable difficulties which many 
among them present to the translator. 

Marlay : Aug. 8, 1864. 


IAM not aware of any very important work bearing 
on Sacred Latin Verse which has appeared since 
the publication of the second edition of this volume, now 
more than nine years ago ; but with the growing interest 
in medieval hymnology it cannot have failed that there 
should be much scattered up and down in various books, 


of which one would willingly take note. I have sought, 
as far as this was possible, to bring up the volume in its 
literary and other notices to the present date, although I 
am well aware how imperfectly in this matter I have 
accomplished my wish. I might have done this better, 
and also might have been more successful in clearing 
away various difficulties which I feel have been very in- 
adequately dealt with in my notes, if it had been still 
permitted to me to consult with one, the most profoundly 
learned hymnologist of our Church, to whom in any 
perplexity I was wont first to refer, and to whom I 
seldom referred in vain. But it is not only in this 
branch of ecclesiastical lore that Dr. Neale has left be- 
hind him no equal, and hardly a second, making a blank 
which remains such still. I could not re-edit this volume, 
and leave this acknowledgement unmade. 

Dublin : Dec. 27, 1873. 



Chapter II. 







V. , 

VI. , 
X. , 
XII. . 

XIII. . 

XIV. . 
XV. . 

XVI. . 

XVII. . 


XIX. . 

XX. . 

. Jucundare, plebs fidelis ..... 64 

. Psallat chorus corde mundo .... 69 

. Verbi vere substantivi ..... 73 

. Verbum Dei, Deo natum . . . . »77 

. Stringere pauca libet bona carminis hujus, et 

ipsum ....... 82 

. Veni, Redemptor gentium ..... 89 

. Praecursoris et Baptistae ..... 94 

. Puer natus in Bethlehem ..... 99 

. Cselum gaude, terra plaude . . . . 102 

, Hic est qui, carnis intrans ergastula nostrae . . 106 

. Nectareum rorem terris instillat Olympus . 1 1 1 

Potestate, non natura . . . . . 113 

Heu ! quid jaces stabulo . . . . . 116 

O ter fecundas, o ter jucundas . . . .118 

Majestati sacrosanctae . . . . . 119 

Salvete, flores martyrum . . . . .123 

Tria dona reges ferunt . . . . . 125 

Tribus signis Deo dignis . . . . .129 

, Crux benedicta nitet, Dominus qua carne pepen- 

dit 132 

Quisquis ades, mediique subis in limina templi . 134 





XXII. , 


XXIV. . 




xxix. t 















XLIV. . 

XLV. . 

XLVI. , 



XLIX. . 

L. . 

LI. . 

LII. . 

LIII. . 




LVII. . 

Desere jam, anima, lectulum soporis 

Salve, mundi salutare .... 

Quam despectus, quam dejectus 

Quantum hamum caritas tibi praesentavit 

Si vis vere gloriari . 

Ecquis binas columbinas 

Vexilla Regis prodeunt 
, Mundi renovatio 

Hsec est dies triumphalis . 
. Mortis portis fractis, fortis 

Pone luctum, Magdalena . 
, Ecce dies celebris 

Zyma vetus expurgetur 
, Portas vestras a^ternales 

Veni, Creator Spiritus 

Simplex in essentia 
, Spiritus Sancte, pie Paraclite 

Veni, Creator Spiritus . 

Qui procedis ab utroque 
, Lux jucunda, lux insignis 

Veni, Sancte Spiritus 
, Est locus ex omni medium quem credimus 

Stola regni laureatus 
, Tuba Domini, Paule, maxima 
. .Eterna Christi munera . 
. Heri mundus exultavit 
, Salve, trop:eum gloria? 
. Sicut chorda musicorum 
, Ex .Egypto Pharaonis 
. Nocte quadam, via fessus 
. Quam dilecta tabemacula 
, Eheu ! eheu ! mundi vita 
. Ut jucundas cen*us undas 
. Cum me tenent fallacia 
. Sit ignis atque lux mihi 
. ^Eterne rerum Conditor 
. Jesu, dulcis memoria 


LVIII. . . Tandem audite me 

LIX. . . Ornarunt terram germina .... 

LX. . . Arx firma Deus noster est .... 

LXI. . . Cum sit omnis homo fcenum 
LXII. . . Omnis mundi creatura .... 

LXIII. . . Xuper eram locuples. multisque beatusamicis 
LXIV. . . Cur mundus militat sub vana gloria . 
LXV. . . Eheu ! quid homines sumus 
LXVI. . . Deus-homo, Rex caelorum 
LXVIL . . Gravi me terrore pulsas, vitae dies ultima 
LXVIIL . . Jam moesta quiesce querela 
LXIX. . . Credere quid dubitem fleri quod posse probatur 
LXX. . . Cum revolvo toto corde .... 

LXXI. . . Apparebit repentina dies magna Domini . 
LXXII. . . Dies irce, dies illa ..... 

LXXIII. . . Crux ave benedicta ..... 

LXXIV. . . Hic breve vivitur, hic breve plangitur, hic 
breve fletur ...... 

LXXV. . . Urbs beata Hirusalem .... 

LXXVT. . . Ad perennis vitce fontem mens sitivit arida . 
LXXVII. . . Astant angelorum chori .... 

LXXVIII. . . Alpha et Cl, magne Deus .... 









Adam of St. Victor . . . . . . . -55 

St. Ambrose 86 

Pistor . . . . . . • . . . -93 

Peter the Venerable . . . . . . . . ioi 

Alanus .......... 104 

Hildebert 108 

Mauburn . . . . . . . . . .116 

Prudentius . . . . . . . . . 121 

Fortunatus . . . . . . . . . • J 3* 

St. Bernard 138 

Bonaventura ......... 144 

Robert the Second, King of France . . . . . 197 

Abelard 208 

Bede 219 

Alard . . . . . . . . . . . 245 

Buttmann ......... 258 

Jacobus de Benedictis . . . . . . . .267 

Balde 272 

Marbod 280 

Damiani .......... 282 

Thomas of Celano ........ 299 

Bernard of Clugny ........ 310 

Thomas of Kempen . . . . . . . -327 




THE Latin poetry of the Christian Church deserves 
a treatment much fuller and completer than any 
which I can pretend to give it here ; offering, as it does, 
so many sides upon which it is most worthy of study. It is 
not, however, my intention to consider it except upon one 
side, or to prefix to this volume more than some neces- 
sary remarks on the relation in which the forms of that 
poetry stand to the forwis of the classic poetry of Rome ; 
tracing, if I may, the most characteristic differences 
between those of the earlier and heathen, and the later 
and Christian, Art. Yet shall I not herein be dealing 
merely with externals. For since the form of aught 
which has any real significance is indeed the manifesta- 
tion and utterance of its innermost life — is the making 
visible, so far as that is possible, of its most essential 
spirit — I shall, if I rightly seize and explain the difference 
of the forms, be implicitly saying something, indeed 
much, concerning the differences between the spirit of 
this poetry, and that of the elder or classical poetry of 



Rome. A few considerations on this matter may help to 
remove offences which otherwise the reader, nourished 
exclusively upon classical lore, might easily take at many 
things which in this volume he will find ; and may other- 
wise assist to put him in a fairer position for appreciating 
the compositions which it contains. 

When, then, we attempt to trace the rise and growth 
of the Latin poetry of the Christian Church, and the 
manner in which, making use, in part and for a season, 
of what it found ready to its hand, it did yet detach 
itself more and more from the classical poetry of Rome, 
we take note of the going forward at the same time of 
two distinct processes. But these, distinct as they are, 
we observe also combining for the formation of the new, 
together giving to it its peculiar character, and con- 
stituting it something more than such a continuation of 
the old classical poetry, as should only differ from it in 
the subjects which supplied to it its theme, all else in it 
remaining unchanged. These processes, as I have said, 
are entirely distinct from one another, have no abso- 
lutely necessary connexion, closely related as undoubt- 
edly they were ; the first being the disintegration of the 
old prosodical system of Latin verse, under the gradual 
substitution of accent for quantity ; and the second, the 
employment of rhyme, within, or at the close of, the 
verse, as a means for marking rhythm, and a device for 
the producing of melody, They have no absolutely 
necessary connexion. There might have been the first 
without the second — accent without rhyme — : as in our 
own blank heroic verse, and occasional blank lyrics ; nor 
are there wanting various and successful examples, in 
this later Latin poetry itself, of the same kind. There 


was the second, rhyme without the displacing of quantity 
by accent, in the rhymed hexameters, pentameters, and 
sapphics wherein the monkish poets of the middle ages 
indulged, still preserving as far as they knew, and often 
preserving altogether, the laws of metrical quantity, but 
adding rhyme as a further ornament to the verse. 

Thus the results of the two processes, namely, an 
accentuated, and a rhymed, poetry, might have existed 
separately, as indeed occasionally they do ; and grow- 
ing up independently of one another, they ought to be 
traced independently also. Yet still, since only in the 
union of the two could results have been produced so 
satisfying, so perfect in their kind, as those which the 
Latin sacred poetry offers to us ; since they did in fact 
essentially promote and sustain one another ; the manner 
in which they mutually reacted each on the other, in 
which the one change rendered almost imperative the 
other, the common spirit out of which both the trans- 
formations proceeded, should not be allowed to pass 
unobserved — being rather a principal matter to which 
he who would explain and trace the change should direct 
his own and his reader's attention. 

I propose to say something first 011 the substitution 
of accent for quantity, an accented for a prosodic verse ; 
which, however, is a subject that will demand one or 
two preliminary remarks. 

There is one very noticeable difference between the 
Christian literature of the Greek and Roman world pn 
the one side, and all other and later Christian litera- 
tures on the other — namely, that those Greek and Latin 
are, so to speak, a new budding and blossoming out of 

B 2 


an old stock ; and this a stock which, when the Church 
was founded, had already put forth, or was in the act 
of putting forth, all that in the natural order of things, 
and but for the quickening breath of a new and un- 
looked-for life, it could ever have unfolded. They are 
as a second and a later spring, coming in the rear of the 
timelier and the first. For that task which the word of 
the Gospel had to accomplish in all other regions of 
man J s life, it had also to accomplish in this. It was not 
granted to it at flrst entirely to make or mould a society 
of its own. A harder task was assigned it — being, as it 
was, superinduced on a society that had come into ex- 
istence, and had gradually assumed the shape which 
now it wore, under very dififerent conditions, and in 
obedience to very different influences from its own. Of 
this it had to make the best which it could ; only to 
reject and to put under ban that which was absolutely 
incurable therein, and directly contradicted its own 
fundamental idea; but of the rest to assimilate to itself 
what was capable of assimilation ; to transmute what 
was willing to be transmuted ; to consecrate what was 
prepared to receive from it a higher consecration ; and 
altogether to adjust, not always with perfect success, but 
as best it might, and often at the cost of much for- 
bearance and self-sacrifice, its relations to the old, that 
had grown up under heathen auspices, and was therefore 
very dirTerent from what it would have been, had the 
leaven of the word of life mingled with and wrought in it 
from the first, instead of coming in, a later addition to it, 
at the end of time. 

Thus was it in almost every sphere of man's life and 
of his moral and intellectual activity ; yet we have here 


to speak only of one — that, namely, of literature and 
language. All the modern literatures and languages of 
Europe Christianity has mainly made what they are \ 
to it they owe all that characterizes them the most 
strongly. For although, as it needs not to say, the 
languages themselves reach back in their elemental rudi- 
ments to a time far anterior to the earliest in which the 
Gospel came, or could have come, in contact with them, 
or indeed had been proclaimed at all; yet it did thus 
mingle with them early enough to fmd them still in that 
wondrous and mysterious process of their first evolution. 
They were yet plastic and fluent, as all languages are 
at a certain period of their existence, though a period 
generally just out of the ken of history. And the lan- 
guages rose to a level with the claims which the new 
religion of the Spirit made upon them. Formed and 
fashioned under its influence, they dilated till they were 
equal to its needs, and adequate exponents, as far as 
language ever can become so, of the deepest things which 
it possessed. 1 

But it was otherwise in regard of the Latin language. 
That, when the Church was founded, and required of it 
to be the organ of her Divine Word, to tell out all the 
riew, and as yet undreamt of, which was stirring in her 
bosom, was already full formed ; it had reached its cli- 
macteric, and was indeed verging, though as yet this fact 
was scarcely perceptible, toward decay, with the stiff- 
ness of commencing age already upon it. Such the 

1 See some beautiful remarks on the Christianizing of the German 
language in the TheoL Stud. und Krit., vol. xxii. p. 308, sqq. ; and 
again in Rudolf von Raumer's Einwirkung d. Christenthums auf 
die Althochdeutsche Sprache, p. 168, sqq. 


Church found it — something to which a new life might 
perhaps be imparted, but the first life of which was well- 
nigh overlived. She found it a garment narrower than 
she could wrap herself withal, and yet the only one 
within reach. But she did not forego the expectation of 
one day obtaining all which she wanted, nor even for the 
present did she sit down entirely contented with the in- 
adequate and insufficient. Herself young and having the 
spirit of life, she knew that the future was her own — that 
she was set in the world for this very purpose of making 
all things new — that what she needed and did not find, 
there must lie in her the power of educing from herself 
— that, though it might not be all at once, yet little by 
little, she could weave whatever vestments w T ere required 
by her for comeliness and beauty." And we do observe 
the language under the new influence, as at the breath of 
a second spring, putting itself forth anew. budding and 
blossoming afresh, the meaning of words enlarging and 
dilating, old words coming to be used in new and higher 
significations, obsolete words reviving, new words being 
coined 1 — with much in all this to offend the classical 
taste, which yet, being inevitable, ought not to offend, 
and with gains far more than compensated the losses. 
There was a new thing, and that being so, it was of 
necessity that there should be a new utterance as well. 
To be offended with this is, in truth, to be offended with 
Christianity, which made this to be inevitable. 

Let us apply all this to the metrical forms of the classi- 

1 See Funccius, Dc Vegetd Latince Linguce Senectute, p. 1139, 
seq. ; and still better, the fifteenth lecture in Ozanam's Civilisation 
au cinquicme Siccle, bearing this title, Comment la Langue Latine 
devint Chretienne. 


cal poetry of Rome. These the Church found ready 
made to her hand, and in their kind having reached a very 
high perfection. But a true instinct must have told her 
at once, or after a very few trials, that these were not the 
metrical forms which she required. Yet it was not to be 
supposed that she should have the courage immediately 
to cast them aside, and to begin the world, as it were, 
afresh \ or that she should have been enabled at once to 
foresee the more adequate forms to be one day developed 
out of her own bosom. At the same time these which she 
thus inherited, while she was content of necessity to use, 
yet could not satisfy her. 1 The Gospel had brought into 

1 Dans le monde grec d'abord, puis, dans le monde romain, les 
chretiens eprouverent le besoin de se servir des formes de la poesie 
antique et de les appliquer aux idees nouvelles. Les IV e et V e 
siecles virent naitre un assez grand nombre d'efforts en ce genre, 
surtout en Italie et en Espagne. Evidemment, ces tentatives 
souvent renouvelees etaient sans portee, sans avenir ; les sentiments 
chretiens, les traditions chretiennes ne pouvaient s'accommoder des 
formes creees pour un autre emploi, vieillies au service d'une autre 
Muse ; evidemment, la litterature chretienne devait produire sa 
propre forme, et c'est ce qu'elle a fait plus tard. Ce n'est pas quand 
elle a cherche a traduire ses inspirations dans le langage de Virgile, 
qu'elle a enfante des ouvrages de quelque vaieur ; c'est quand elle a 
invente son epopee, avec Dante et Milton, et son drame dans les 
mysteres du moyen age, ou les actes sacramentaux de Calderon, qui 
ne sont qu'une resurrection et un ramnement des mysteres ; c'est 
quand elle a inspire ces beaux chants qui, depuis Luther, n'ont cesse 
de retentir sous les voutes des eglises d'Allemagne. Alors la 
poesie chretienne a fait son ceuvre ; jusque la elle n'etait qu'un 
calque pale et un echo affaibli de la poesie paienne (Ampere, Hist. 
Litt. de laFrance, vol. ii. p. 196). And again : II faut que lechant 
chretien depouille entierement ces lambeaux de metrique ancienne, 
qu'il se fasse completement moderne par la rime comme par le 
sentiment ; alors, on aura cette firose rimee empreinte d'une sombre 
harmonie, qui par la tristesse des sons et des images et le retour 


meiVs hearts longings after the infinite and the eternal, 
which were strange to it, at least in their present intensity, 
until now. Beauty of outline, beauty of form — and what 
a flood of light does that one word forma, as equivalent 
to beauty, pour on the difference between the heathen and 
the Christian ideal of beauty ! — this was all which the old 
poetry yearned after and strove to embody ; this was all 
which its metrical frameworks were perfectly fitted for 

But now heaven had been opened, and henceforward 
the mystical element of modern poetry demanded its 
rights ; vaguer but vaster thoughts were craving to find 
the harmonies to which they might be married for ever. 
The boundless could not be content to find its organ in 
that, of which the very perfection lay in its limitations 
and its bounds. The Christian poets were in holy earnest; 
a versification therefore could no longer be endured, 
attached, as in their case at least it was, by no living 
bonds to the thoughts, in which sense and sound had no 
real correspondence with one another. The versification 
henceforth must have an intellectual value, which should 
associate it with the onward movement of the thoughts 
and feelings, whereof it professed to be, and thus indeed 
should be, the expression. A struggle therefore com- 
menced from the first, between the form and spirit, be- 
tween the old heathen form and the new Christian spirit 
— the latter seeking to release itself from the shackles 
and restraints which the former imposed upon it ; and 
which were to it, not a help and a support, as the form 
should be, but a hindrance and a weakness — not liberty, 

menacant de la terniinaison lugubre fait pressentir le Dante, on aura 
le Dies Ir<z (vol. ii. p. 412). 


but now rather a most galling bondage. 1 The new wine 
went on fermenting in the old bottles, till it burst them 

1 We see already in Prudentius the process of emancipation 
effectually at work, the disintegration of the old prosodic system 
beginning. He still affects to write, and in the main does write, 
prosodically ; yet with largest licences. No one will suppose him 
more ignorant than most schoolboys of fourteen would be now, of 
the quantitative value which the old classical poets of Rome, with 
whose writings he was evidently familiar, had attributed to words ; 
yet we continually fincl him attributing another value, postponing 
quantity to accent, or rather allowing accent to determine quantity, 
as in cyaneus, Sardinia, enigma. As a late editor has observed : 
Metrum haud raro negligitur, quia poeta in arsi vv. majorem vim 
accentui quam quantitati tribuit (Obbarii Prudcntius, p. 19). The 
whole scheme of Latin prosody must have greatly loosened its hold, 
before he could have used the freedom which he does use, in the 
shifting and altering the value of syllables. \Ye mark in him 
especially a determination not to be deprived altogether of service- 
able words through a metrical notation excluding them in toto from 
a place in the hexameter. Thus he writes temulentus, delibutus, 
idololatrix, calceamentum, margaritum ; though as regards this last 
word, in an iambic verse, where there was no motive, but the 
contrary, for producing the antepenultima, he restores to that 
syllable its true quantity, and writes margarita. In the same way 
not ignorance nor caprice, but the feeling that they must have the 
word ecclesia at command, while yet, if they left it with the ante- 
penultima long, it could never find place in the pentameter, and 
only in one of its cases in the hexameter, induced the almost 
universal shortening of that syllable among the metrical writers of 
the Church. No doubt the opposition to the metrical scheme lay 
deeper than this, which was but one moment of it : yet the fact, 
that the chief metres excluded a vast number of the noblest and 
even most necessary words, and though not absolutely excluding, 
rendered many more inadmissible in most of their inflexions — this 
must have been peculiarly intolerable to them. Craving the whole 
domain of words for their own, finding it. only too narrow for the 
nttering of all they were struggling to express, desiring, too, as 
must all whose thoughts and feelings are real, that their words 


asunder, though not itself to be spilt and lost in the pro- 
cess, but so to be gathered into nobler chalices, vessels 
more fitted to contain it — new, even as that which was 
poured into them was new. 

We can trace step by step the struggle between the 
two principles of heathen and Christian life, which were 
here opposed to one another. As the classical or old 

should fit close to their sense, they could ill endure to be shut out 
from that which often was the best and fittest, by arbitrary, artificial, 
and to them unmeaning restrictions. Thus Augustine distinctly 
tells us that he composed his curious Psal??ius contra partem Do?iati 
\\\ the rhythm which he did, that so he might not be hampered or 
confined in his choice of words by the necessities of metre : Ideo 
autem non aliquo carmi?iis genere id fieri volui, ne me necessitas 
metrica ad aliqua verba quas vulgo minus sunt usitata compelleret. 
Car?ne?i signifies here a poem composed after the old classical 
models ; his own, as being popularly and not metrically written, he 
counts only a ca?iticum. The distinctive and statelier diction of the 
car??ie?i is indicated by Terentianus Maurus, 298 : 

Verba si non obvia 
Car?ni?iis servant honorem, non jacentis ca?itici. 

One has but to turn to the lyrical poems of Horace, to become 
at once aware of the wealth of words, which for the writer of the 
hexameter and pentameter may be said not to exist. What a world, 
for example, of noble epithets — tumultuosus, luctuosus, injuriosus, 
formidolosus, fraudulentus, contumax, pervicax, insolens, intami- 
natus, fastidiosus, periculosus — with many more among the most 
poetical words in the language, are under the ban of a perpetual 
exclusion. It will be remembered how Ovid laments to his friend 
Tuticanus the impossibility of bringing him into his verse, Ex 
Pon. Ep. iv. 12. See on this subject Kone, Die Sprache der Rom. 
Epikcr, 1840, a very interesting volume ; in which the author traces 
at length the enormous influence which the necessities of their metre 
exercised on the Epic poets of Rome, and the various devices by 
which they sought to escape the limitations which it imposed upon 


Roman element grew daily weaker in the new Christian 
world which now had been founded \ as the novel ele- 
ment of Christian life strengthened and gained ground ; 
as poetry became popular again, not the cultivated enter- 
tainment of the polite and lettered few, a graceful amuse- 
ment of the scholar and the gentleman, but that in which 
all men desired to express, or to frnd expressed for them, 
their hopes and fears, their joys and their sorrows, and 
all the immortal longings of their common humanity ; — 
a confmement became less and less endurable within the 
old and stereotyped forms, which, having had for their 
own ends their fitness and beauty, were yet constituted 
for the expressing of far other thoughts, sentiments, and 
hopes than those which now stirred at far deeper depths 
the spirits and the hearts of men. The whole scheme on 
which the Latin prosodical poetry was formed, was felt 
to be capricious, imposed from without ; and the poetry 
which now arose demanded — not, indeed, to be without 
law; for, demanding this, it would have demanded its 
own destmction, and not to be poetry at all ; but it de- 
manded that its laws and restraints should be such as its 
own necessities, and not those of quite a different con- 
dition, required. 1 

1 The Instrnctiones of Commodianus, a poem quite valueless 
in a literary point of view, is yet curious in this respect ; and the 
more curious now that it is placed by scholars in the latter half of 
the third century rather than in the fourth, where it used to be set. 
Very singular is it to fmd, more than a hundred years before the 
last notes of the classical muse had expired in Claudian, a poem of 
considerable length composed on the system of a total abandonment 
of quantity, and substitution of accent in its room — maintaining the 
apparent framework of the old classical hexameter, but nlling it up 
on a principle entirely new. Nor can we suppose that a poem so 


It is something more than mere association, more than 
the fact that these metres, in all of rnost illustrious and 

long, and in its fashion so elaborate, is the first specimen of its kind, 
however it is the first which has come down to our days. It is of 
so little value as to be in few hands ; three or four lines may there- 
fore be quoted as a specimen. These are part of a remonstrance 
against the pomp of female dress, § 60 : 

Obruitis collum monilibus, gemmis, et auro, 
Necnon et inaures gravissimo pondere pendent : 
Quid memorem vestes et totam Zabuli pompam ? 
Respuitis legem, cum vultis mundo placere. 

Utterly prosaic if regarded as poetry, this work still bears the 
marks of a strong moral earnestness, is the utterance of one who 
had something to say to his brethren, and was longing to say it : 
and no doubt here was what tempted him to forsake a system of 
versification which had become intolerably artificial in his time and 
for him ; and to develop for himself, or finding developed to use, 
one in which he should in great part be released from its arbitrary 
obligations. See the Theol. Stud. u?id Krit. 187 1, p. 180, for 
further notices of this poem, and of another by the same author, 
published for the first time in the Spicilegium Soles??ie?ise, 1852, pp. 
17-49; an d compare Lucian Mliller, De Re Metrica, Leipsic, 1861, 
p. 445. In the following lines, forming part of a hymn first pub- 
lished by Niebuhr (Rhein. Museum, 1829, p. 7), lines plainly 
intended to consist of four dactyles each, dactyles, that is, in sound, 
which with a little favouring of one or two syllables, they may be 
made to appear, there is the same intention of satisfying the ear 
with accentuated and not prosodic feet. The lines relate to St. 
Paul, and are themselves worthy to be quoted : 

Factus ceconomus in domo regia, 
Divini muneris appone fercula ; 
Ut quce repleverit te sapientia, 
Ipsa nos repleat tua per dogmata. 

This hymn also, though considerably later than the poem of Com- 
modianus, is certainly of a very early date. It cannot, in the judge- 
ment of Xiebuhr, be later than the seventh century. 


most memorable which had been composed in them, had 
been either servants of the heathen worship, or at least 
appropriated to heathen themes, which induced the 
Church little by little to forsake them : which even at this 
day causes them at once to translate us into, and to make 
us feel that we are moving in, the element of heathen 
life. The bond is not thus merely historic and external, 
but spiritual and inward. And yet, at the same time, the 
influence of these associations must not be overlooked, 
when we are estimating the causes which wrought together 
to alienate the poets and hymnologists of the Christian 
Church ever more and more from the classical, and 
especially from the lyrical, metres of antiquity, and which 
urged them to seek more appropriate forms of their own. 
In those the heathen gods had been celebrated and sung, 
the whole impure mythology had been arrayed and tricked 
out. Were they not profaned for ever by these unholy 
uses to which they had been first turned? How could 
the praises of the true and living God be fitly sung in the 
same ? A like feeling to that which induced the abandon- 
ment of the heathen temples, and the seeking rather to 
develop the existing basilicas into Christian churches, or 
where new churches were built, to build them after the 
fashion of the civil, and not the religious, edifices already 
existing, must have been here also at work. The faithful 
would have often shrunk from the involuntary associations 
which these metres suggested, as we should shrink from 
hearing a psalm or spiritual song fitted to some tune 
which had been desecrated to lewd or otherwise profane 
abuse. And truly there is, and we find it even now, a 
clinging atmosphere of heathen life shed round many of 
these metres, which it is almost impossible to dissipate ; 


so that, reading some sacred thoughts which have arrayed 
themselves in sapphics, 1 or alcaics, or hendecasyllables, 
we are more or less conscious of a certain contradiction 
between the form and the subject, as though they were 
awkwardly and unfitly matched, and one or other ought 
to have been different from what it is. 

The wonderful and abiding success of the hymns of 
St Ambrose, and of those so-called Ambrosian which 
were formed upon the model of his, lay doubtless in 
great part in the wise instinct of choice, which led him 
to select a metre by far the least markedly metrical, and 
the most nearly rhythmical, of all the ancient metres out 
of which it was free to him to choose ; — I mean the 
iambic dimeter. The time was not yet come when it was 
possible altogether to substitute rhythm for metre : the 
old had still too much vitality to be cast aside, the new 
had not yet clearly shaped itself forth • but choosing thus, 
he escaped (as far as it was possible, using these forms 
at all, to escape) the disturbing reminiscences and asso- 
ciations of heathen art. 2 While in a later day hardly 
anything so strongly revealed the extent to which Roman 
Catholic Italy had fallen back under pagan influences, 
was penetrated through and through at the revival of 
learning with the spirit of heathen, and not of Christian, 
life, as the offence which was then everywhere taken by 

1 Take, for instance, this from a sapphic ode in honour of the 
Baptist : 

Oh nimis felix, meritique celsi, 
Nescius labem nivei pudoris, 
Praepotens martyr, eremique cultor, 
Maxime vatum. 

See Bahr, Dk ChristL Dichter Roms, p. 7. 


Italian churchmen, Leo the Tenth at their head, at the 
unmetrical hymns of the Church, and the determination 
manifested to reduce them by force, and at the cost of 
any wrong to their beauty and perfection, to metre \ — 
their very exemption from which was their glory, and 
that which made them to be indeed Christian hymns in 
the highest sense. 1 

This movement, then, which began early to manifest 
itself, for an enfranchisement from the old classical forms, 
this impatience of their restraints, was essentially a 
Christian one. Still we cannot doubt that it was assisted 
and made easier by the fact that the metrical system, 
against which the Church protested, and from which it 
sought to be delivered, had been itself brought in from 
without. Itself of foreign growth, it could oppose no 
such stubborn resistance as it would have done, had it 
been native to the soil, had its roots been entwined 
strongly with the deepest foundations of the Latin tongue. 
But this they were not. It is abundantly known to all 
who take any interest in the early poetry of Rome, that 
it was composed on principles of versification altogether 
different from those which were introduced with the intro- 

1 The history of the successive revisions which the non-metrical 
hymns sustained, is given by Arevalus, an enthusiastic admirer of 
the process, in his Hymnodia Hispanica^ Romse, 1786, pp. 121-144, 
with this ominous heading : Romanorum Pontificum in reformandd 
Hymnodid Diligentia. Daniel (Tkesaurus Hymnologicus, Halis, 
1841 ; Lipsiae, 1844-6) has frequently given in parallel columns 
the hymn as it existed in earlier times, probably as it came from the 
author, and as it was recast in the Roman breviary. The com- 
parison is very instructive, as shewing how well-nigh the whole 
grace and beauty, and even vigour, of the composition had dis- 
appeared in the process. 


duction of the Greek models in the sixth century of the 
City — that Latin hexameters, or * long ' verses, were in 
all probability first composed by Ennius, 1 while the chief 
lyric metres belong to a much later day, having been 
introduced, some of the simpler kinds, as the sapphic by 
Catullus, and the more elaborate not till the time, and 
only through the successful example, of Horace. 2 It is 
known too that while the hexameter took comparatively 
a firm root in the soil, and on the whole could not be 
said to be alien to the genius of the Latin tongue, the 
lyric metres remained exotics to the end, were never 
truly acclimated, — nothing worth reading or being pre- 
served having been produced in them, except by those 
who first transplanted them from Greek to Italian ground. 3 
It was not that the Latin language should be without its 
great lyric utterances, and such as should be truly its own ; 
but it was first to find these in the Christian hymns of the 
middle ages. 

The poetry of home growth, — the old Italian poetry 
which was thrust out by this new, — was composed, as 
we learn from the fragments which survive, and from 
notices lying up and down, on altogether a different 
basis of versification. There is no reason to believe that 
quantity, except as represented by and identical with 
accent, was recognized in it at all. For while accent 
belongs to every language and to every age of the 

1 Cicero, De Legg. ii. 27. 

2 Horace, Ep. i. 19, 21-34. 

3 Quintilian's judgment of his countrymen's achievements in lyric 
poetry is just {Instit. Orat. x. 1, 96) : Lyricorum Horatius fere 
solus legi dignus. Statius was a poet of genius ; but his sapphics 
and aleaics are as the exercises of a schoolboy. 


language, — that is, in pronouncing any word longer than 
a monosyllable, an idns or stress must fall on one syllable 
more than on others, — quantity is an invention more or 
less arbitrary. At how late a period, and how arbitrarily, 
and as from without, it was imposed on the Latin, the 
innumerable anomalies, inconsistencies, and contradic- 
tions in the prosodical system of the language suffi- 
ciently testify. 

I know, indeed, that some have denied the early 
Latin verse to have rested on a merely accentual founda- 
tion. I certainly would not have gone out of my way to 
meddle with a controversy upon which such high names 
are ranged upon either side. But lying as it does 
directly in my path, I cannot forbear saying, that, 
having sought to make myself master of what has come 
within my reach upon the question, and judging by the 
analogy of all other popular poetry, I am convinced that 
Ferdinand Wolf, 1 Bahr, 2 and those others are in the 
right, who, admitting indeed the existence of Saturnian, 
that is old Italian, verses, deny that there was properly 
any such thing as a Saturnian metre — that is, any flxed 
scheme or frame-work of long and short feet, after the 
Greek fashion, according to which these verses were 
composed ; these consisting rather, as all ballad-poetry 
does, of a loosely defined number of syllables, not metri- 
cally disposed, but with places sufficiently marked, upon 

1 Ueber die Lais, p. 159. 

2 Gesch. d. Romischen Litteratur y vol. i. p. 89 ; Edelestand du 
Meril, Poesies populaires Latines t Paris, 1843, P* 45 > Spengel, 
Philologus, p. xxiii. ; John Wordsworth, Hist. of Latin Languagc 
and Literature, pp. 60-65 ; Kone, Die Sprache der Rom. Epiker^ 
pp. 255-279. 



which a stress of the voice fell, to vindicate for them the 
character of verse. 1 

Into what these numbers would have unfolded them- 
selves, as the nation advanced in culture, and as the 
ear, gradually growing nicer and more exacting in its 
requirements, claimed a finer melody, it is not easy to 
say ; but Latin poetry at all events, as it would have had 
a character, so would it have rested on a basis of versi- 
fication, which was its own. And knowing this, we can 
scarcely sympathize without reserve in the satisfaction 
which Horace expresses at the change which presently 
came over it ; however, we may admit that, with the 
exception of his one greater contemporary, he accom- 
plished more than any other, to excuse and justify, and 
even to reconcile us to, the change. That change came, 
as is familiar to all, when, instead of being allowed such 
a process of natural development from within, it was 
drawn out of its own orbit by the too prevailing attrac- 
tions of the Greek literature, within the sphere and full 
influence of which the Roman conquests of the sixth 
century brought it, — though, indeed, that influence had 
commenced nearly a century before. 2 

It is, indeed, a perilous moment for a youthful litera- 

1 It is characteristic of this, that numeri should be the proper 
Latin word for verses rather than any word which should corre- 
spond to the Greek metre. The Romans, in fact, counted their 
syllables and did not measure them, a certain number of these con- 
stituting a rhythm. Numeri is only abusively applied to verses 
which rest on music and time, and not on the number of the sylla- 
bles (Niebuhr, Lectures on Early Roman History, p. II). 

2 See the limitations upon Horace's well-known words, Grsecia 
capta ferum victorem cepit (Epp. ii. i, 156), which Orelli (inloc.) 
puts, and in like manner Niebuhr. 


ture, — so youthful as not yet to have acquired confidence 
in itself, — and, though full of latent possibilities of great- 
ness, having hitherto actually accomplished little, — to be 
brought within the sphere of an elder, which is now 
ending a glorious course, and which offers to the younger 
for its imitation finished forms of highest beauty and 
perfection. Most perilous of all is it, if these forms are 
not so strange, but that with some little skill they may 
be transplanted to the fresher soil, with a fair promise 
of growing and flourishing there. For the younger to 
adhere to its own forms and fashions, rude and rugged, 
and as yet only most imperfectly worked out — to believe 
that in them, and in cleaving to them, its true future 
is laid up, and not in appropriating the more elaborate 
models which are now offered ready to its hands — for 
it thus to refuse to be dazzled by the prospect of im- 
mediate results, and of overleaping a stage or two of 
slow and painful progress, this is indeed most hard ; 
the temptation has proved oftentimes too strong to be 

It was so in the case which we are considering now. 
The Roman spirit could not, of course, utterly disap- 
pear, or be entirely supprest. Quite sufficient of that 
spirit has remained to vindicate for Roman literature an 
independent character, and to free it from the charge 
of being merely the echo and imitation of something 
else ; but the Roman forms did nearly altogether disap- 
pear, and even the Roman spirit was very considerably 
depressed and affected by the alien influence to which it 
was submitted. 

The process, in truth, was wonderfully like that which 
found place, when, in the first half of the sixteenth cen- 


tury, the national poetry of Spain yielded to the influ- 
ence of Italian models, and Castillejo was obliged to 
give place to Boscan and Garcilasso. The points of 
resemblance in these parallel cases are many. Thus in 
either case, the conquered, and at that time morally, 
and so far as strength went, intellectually, inferior people, 
— the people, therefore, with much less of latent pro- 
ductivity for the future, whatever may have been the 
marvels it had accomplished in the past, — imposed its 
literary yoke on the conquering and the nobler nation ; 
caused it in a measure to be ashamed of that which 
hitherto it had effected, or of all which, continuing in 
its own line, it was likely to effect. Nor was this the 
only point in which the processes were similar. There 
were other points of resemblance — as this, that it is 
impossible to deny but that here, as there, poetry of a 
very high order was composed upon the new models. 
Great results came of the change, and of the new direc- 
tion in which the national taste was turned. Every 
thing, in short, came of it but the one thing, for the 
absence of which all else is but an insufficient compensa- 
tion ; namely, a thoroughly popular literature, which 
should truly smack of the soil from which it sprung, 
which should be the utterance of a nation's own life ; 
and not merely accents, which, however sweet or musical, 
were yet caught from the lips of another, and only arti- 
ficially fitted to its own. 

But with the fading and growing weak of every thing 
else in the classical literature of Rome, this foreign 
usurpation faded and grew weak also. It is more than 
possible, for indeed we have satisfactory evidence to the 
fact, that traditions of the old rhythms were preserved 


in the popular poetry throughout the whole period 
during which the metrical forms borrowed from the 
Greek were alone in vogue at the capital, and among 
those who laid claim to a learned education, that Satur- 
nian, or old Italian, verses lived upon the lips of the 
people during all this interval. 1 We have continual 
allusion to such rustic melodies : and even were we with- 
out any such, we might confidently affirm that a people 
could never have been without a poetry, which existed 
under circumstances so favourable for its production as 
the Italian peasantry \ and, if possessing a poetry, that 
it would be such as should find its expression in the old 
Italian numbers, and not in the Greek exotic metres. 
It is true that verses composed in these old and native 
numbers, on rhythmic, and not on metrical, principles, 
do not openly reappear, that is, with any claims to be 
considered as literature, until the foreign domination 
began to relax its hold ; but that no sooner was this the 

1 Muratori (Antiqq. Ital. Diss. 40) : Itaque duplex Poeseos genus 
olim exsurrexit, alterum antiquius, sed ignobile ac plebeium ; 
altemm nobile et a doctis tantummodo viris excultum. Illud 
rhythniicum, illud metricum appellatum est. Sed quod potissimum 
est animadvertendum, quamquam Metrica Poesis primas arripuerit, 
omniumque meliorum suffragio et usu probata laudibus ubique 
ornaretur : attamen Rhythmica Poesis non propterea defecit apud 
Gnecos atque Latinos. Quum enim vulgus indoctum et rustica 
gens Poetam interdum agere vellet, nec legibus metri addiscendis 
par erat ; quales poterat, versus efformare perrexit : hoc est, 
Rhythmo contenta, Metrum contempsit : Metrum, inquam, hoc est, 
rigidas prosodiae leges, quas perfecta Poesis sequitur. So Santen, 
in his Notes on Terentianus Afaurus, p. 177: Nec tamen post 
Graeciae numeros, ab Andronico agresti Latio introductos, vetus 
Saturniorum modorum rusticitas cessavit, immo vero non solum 
ejus vestigia, sed ipsa etiam res in omne aevum superstes mansit. 


case, than at once they witness for their presence, putting 
themselves forth anew. 1 

As something of an analogous case, we know that 
many words which Attius and Naevius used, and which 
during the Augustan period seemed to have been entirely 
lost, do begin to emerge and present themselves afresh in 
Appuleius, Prudentius, and Tertullian. The number of 
words which are thus not Augustan, and yet are at once 
ante- and /arZ-Augustan, must have struck every one who 
has closely watched the growth, progress, and decay of 
the Latin tongue. The reappearance of this in writers of 
the silver age, is often explained as an affected seeking of 
archaisms on their parts ; yet much more probably, the 
words were under literary ban for a time, but had lived on 
in popular speech, and when that ban was removed, or 
was unable any more to give effect to its decrees, shewed 
themselves anew in books, as they had always continued 
alive in the common language of the people. 

By thus going back toward the origins of Latin litera- 
ture, we can better understand how it came to pass, that 
when there arose up in the Christian Church a desire to 

1 There is much instmctive on this subject in a little article by 
Niebuhr, in the Rhein. Museum, 1829, pp. 1-8. On the reappear- 
ance of the supprest popular poetry of Italy, he says : Es ist auch 
wohl sehr begreiflich wie damals, als das eigentliche Latein, und 
die Formen der Litteratur nur miihselig durch die Schulen erhalten 
wurden, manches volksmassige sich frey machte, wieder empor 
kam, und einen Platz unter dem einnahm, was die verblodete 
Schule seit Jahrhunderten geweiht hatte. Der neugriechische 
politische Vers, welcher dem Tact des Tanzes entspricht, ist ja der 
namliche wonach Konig Philippus siegstrunken tanzte : 

ArjfjLoadeyrjs A77 jxo a 6 zvovs Tlaiavieits Tct5' elTre — 
nur dass Accent, nicht Sylbenmaass, dabey beachtet wird. 



escape from the confinement of the classical metres, and 
to exchange metrical for rhythmical laws, the genius of 
the language lent, instead of opposing, itself to the 
change. It was instinctively conscious, that this new 
which was aimed at was also the old, indeed, the oldest 
of all ; the recovering of a natural position from an un- 
natural and strained one : — to which therefore it reverted 
the more easily. 

And other motives, — having their origin no less in the 
same fact, that quantity was not indigenous to the Latin 
soil, and therefore had struck no deep root, and obtained 
no wide recognition, in the universal sense of the people, 
— were not wanting to induce the poet of these later 
times to abandon the ancient metres, and expatiate in the 
freer region of accented verse. Such a consummation 
was helped on and hastened by that gradual ignorance 
of the quantity of words, which, with the waning and 
fading away of classical learning under the barbarian 
invasions, became every day wider spread. Even where 
the poet himself was sufficiently acquainted with the 
quantitative value of words, the number of readers or 
hearers who still kept this knowledge was every day 
growing less in the Roman world ; the majority being in- 
capable of appreciating his skill, or finding any satisfying 
melody in his versification, the principles of which they 
did not understand ; while the accentual value of words, 
as something self-evident, would be recognized by every 
ear. 1 

This fact of its self-evidence wrought effectually in 
another way. For perhaps the most important step of 

1 See Heyse, System der Sprachwissenschaft p. 333. 


all, for the freeing of verse from the fetters of prosody, 
and that which was most fatal to the maintenance of the 
old metrical system, was the introduction of liturgic 
chanting into the services of the Church — although this 
indeed was only the working out, in a particular direction, 
of that new spirit which was animating it in every part. 
The Christian hymns were composed to be sung, and to 
be sung at first by the whole congregation of the faithful, 
who were only little by little thrust out from their share 
in this part of the service. But the classical or prosodical 
valuation of words would have been ciearly inappreciable 
by the larger number of those whom it was desired thus 
to draw in to take part in the worship. If the voices of 
the assembled multitudes were indeed claimed for this, 
it could only be upon some scheme which should com- 
mend itself to all by its simplicity — which should appeal 
to some principle intelligible to every man, whether he 
had received an education of the schools, or not. Quan- 
tity, with its values so often merely fictitious, and so often 
inconsistent one with another, could no longer be main- 
tained as the basis of harmony. The Church naturally 
fell back on accent, which is essentially popular, appealing 
to the common sense of every ear, and in its broader 
features, in its simple rise and fall, appreciable by all \ — 
which had also in its union with music this advantage, 
that it allowed to those, who were much more concerned 
about what they said, than how they said it, and could ill 
brook to be crossed and turned out of their way by rules 
and restraints, the necessity of which they did not 
acknowledge, far greater liberty than quantity would have 
allowed them ; inasmuch as the music, in its choral har- 
monies, was ever ready to throw its broad mantle over 


the verse, to conceal its weakness, and, where needful, to 
cover the multitude of its faults. 1 

1 See F. Wolf, Ueber die Lais, pp. 82-84. Cardinal Pitra, in his 
interesting book Hymnographie de VEglise Grecque^ Rome, 1867, 
p. 23, sqq., traces the same process as having gone forward in the 
Greek Church, which I have here sought to trace in the Latin. I 
conclude with some words drawn from an Essay which Gautier has 
prefixed to his edition of the Poe??is of Adam of St. Victo?-, Paris, 
1858, p. xix. : Avoir trouve le secret d'enrichir la langue latine 
d'une nouvelle versification, brillante, sonore, originale, et, quand 
cette langue avait deja produit une poesie fondee sur la met?ique ou 
la qua?itite des syllabes, la forcer, pour ainsi dire, en sa forte 
vieillesse, a en produire une seconde, fondee sur le syllabis??ie et la 
rime, c'est-a-dire sur des caracteres tout opposes a ceux de l'an- 
cienne poesie ; avoir ainsi contraint le meme arbre a se couvrir 
tour a tour de deux moissons de fruits qui n'eurent ni la meme 
apparence, ni la meme saveur, voila ce que firent les poetes du 
douzieme siecle, achevant les essais de ceux du onzieme. 




THIS much on the substitution of accent for quantity. 
But hand in hand with the process of exchang- 
ing metre for a merely accentuated rhythm went another 
movement, I mean the tendency to adopt rhyme, and to 
make such regular use of it as had never been contem- 
plated before. Of this process it might doubtless be 
afhrmed no less than of the other, that it was in part only 
a recovery of the lost ; having its rudimentary beginnings, 
or at all events its very clear anticipation, in the early 
national poetry of Rome. This too, except for that event 
which gave to the Latin language a second lease of life, 
and revealed capabilities in it which had been dormant 
hitherto, might not and probably would not now have 
ever unfolded itself there, the nrst and more natural 
opportunity having long since passed away. Such an 
opportunity lt had once enjoyed. There is quite enough 
in such remains of early Latin poetry as we possess, to 
shew that rhyme was not a new element, altogether alien 
to the language, which was forced upon it by the Christian 
poets in the days of its decline. There were early pre- 
ludings of that which should indeed only fully and 
systematically unfold itself at the last. The tendencies of 
the Saturnian, and of such other fragments of ancient 
Latin verse as have reached us, to terminations of a like 


sound, have been often noticed, 1 as this from the Andro- 
macha of Ennius : 

Hcec omnia vidi inflammari, 

Priamo vi vitam evitari, 

Jovis aram sanguine turpari. 

The following, of more uncertain authorship, is quoted by 

Cicero {Tusc. 1, 28) : 

Caelum nitescere, arbores frondescere, 
Vites laetificae pampinis pubescere, 
Rami bacarum ubertate incurvescere. 

Of that earlier poetry rhyme might be considered a 
legitimate ornament. And even after a system had been 
introduced resting on altogether different principles of 
versification, that, I mean, of the Greek metres, yet was 
it so inborn in the language, that it continually made its 
appearance \ being no doubt only with difficulty avoided 
by those writers, whose stricter sense of beauty taught 
them not to catch at ornaments which were not properly 
theirs \ and easily attained by those, who with a more 
questionable taste were well pleased to sew it as a purple 
patch on a garment of altogether a different texture. 2 

1 Lange however goes much too far, when he affirms (see Jahn, 
Jahrbuch der Philologie, 1830, p. 256) that it systematically found 
place in the old popular poetry of Rome ; which was Casaubon's 
opinion as well (ad Pers. Sat. i. 93, 94). Kake (RJiein. Museuvi, 
1829, pp. 388-392) takes a more reasonable view. 

2 See Bahr, Gesch. d. Rb?n. Literatur, vol. ii. p. 681. It is 
evident that the Latin prose writers, even the best, and the comic 
writers whose verse was so like to prose, were quite willing some- 
times to avail themselves of the satisfaction which the near recur- 
rence of words of a similar sound affords to the ear. Thus Cicero 
himself (Brut. 87) : Volvendi sunt libri Catonis : intelliges nihil 
illius lineamentis, nisi eorum pigmentorum, quee inventa nondum 
erant, jlorem et colorem defuisse. So Pliny the younger: Illam 


Thus \ve cannot doubt that these coincidences of sound 
were sedulously avoided by so great a master of the pro- 
prieties as Virgil — in whose works therefore rhyming 
verses rarely appear : while it is difficult not to suspect 
that they were sometimes sought, or, if not sought, yet 
welcomed when they offered themselves, by Ovid, in 
whom they occur far more frequently, and whose less 
severe taste may have been willing to appropriate this as 
w r ell as the more legitimate adornments which belonged 
to the verse that he was using. 

They occur indeed, these verses with middle and with 
final rhymes, in every one of the Latin poets. Thus, 
not to speak of lines coming under no rule, like that of 
Ennius, which is all rhyme, 

Moerentes, flentes, lacrumantes, commiserantes — 

veram et meram Graeciam. And Plautus [Cistell. i. i, 70): Amor 
et melle et felle est fecundissimus. And Caracalla of the brother 
whom he murdered : Sit licet divus, dummodo non vivus. In the 
Christian prose-writers they are more frequent still, especially in 
Augustine ; as, for instance, this (having reference to Stephen's 
sharp chiding of the Jews) : Lingua e/amat f cor amat ; or this, on 
the two Testaments : In Novo patent, quae in Vetere latent ; or, on 
the Christian's ' hope of glory ' : Prsecedat spes, ut sequatur res ; or, 
on faith : Quid est emm Jides, nisi credere quod non vides ? or, in- 
terpreting John xxi. 9 : Piscis assus, Christus est passus ; or, on 
obedience and reward : Hoc agamus bene, ut illud habeamus//^;/^; 
or, on the need of laying aside every weight : Noli amare impedi- 
mentum, si non vis invenire tormentiwi ; or, once more, of the 
Heavenly City : Ibi nullus oritur, quia nullus moritur ; or again, as 
a sort of comment on Luke vi. 25 : Seculi hztitia est impunita 
nequitia ; or this, which does not need an interpretation : Lupus 
venit fremens, lupus redit tremens ; lupus est tamen et tremens et 
fremens. Nake (R/unn, Museiwi, 1829, pp. 392-401) has accumu- 
lated examples in like kind from almost all the Latin prose writers. 


we have in the same examples of the middle rhyme, as 

this : 

Non cauponantes bellum, sed belligerantes ; 

and in Virgil : 

Limus ut hic durescit, et haec ut cera liquescit ; 

so too in Ovid : 

Quem mare carpentem, substrictaque crura gerentem; 

and again : 

Quot cselum stellas, tot habet tua Roma puellas; 

and in a pentameter : 

Quaerebant ilavos per nemus omne favos 

and in Martial : 

Sic leve flavorum valeat genus Usipiorum ; 

thus also in Claudian : 

Flava cruentarum praetenditur umbra jubarum. 

These examples might easily be multiplied. As we 
descend lower, leonine verses become still more frequent. 
They abound in the Mosella of Ausonius. 

Nor less have we flnal rhymes even in Virgil, as the 
following : 

Nec non Tarquinium ejectum Porsenna jubebat 
Accipere, ingentique urbem obsidione premebat ; 

and again : 

Omnis campis diffugit arator, 
Omnis et agricola, et tuta latet arce viator ; l 

1 Other examples of this in Virgil, Eclog. iv. 50, 51 ; Georg. ii. 
500, 501; Mn. i. 319, 320; iii. 656, 657; iv. 256, 257 (where 
see Forbiger) ; v. 385, 386-; viii. 620, 621. 


and in Horace, as in his well-known precept : 

Non satis est pulcra esse poemata; dulcia sunto, 
Et quocumque volent, animum auditoris agunto ; 

and once more : 

Multa recedentes adimunt. Ne forte seniles 
Mandentur juveni partes, pueroque viriles. 

As we reach the silver age, they are more frequent : they 
abound in Lucan, though one example may suffice : 

Crimen erit Superis et me fecisse nocentem, 
Sidera quis mundumque velit spectare cadentem ? * 

When therefore at a later day rhyme began to enter as 
a regular element into poetry, and to be accounted almost 
its necessary condition, this was not the coming in of 
something wholly strange or new. Rhyme, though new 
to Latin verse in the extent to which it was now adopted, 
yet had already made itself an occasional place even in 
the later or prosodic poetry of Rome ; as no doubt it was, 
and would have continued to be, of far more frequent 
occurrence in that earlier national poetry, which, as we 

1 Schuch, in a little essay of no very great value, De Poesis 
Latince. Rhythmis et Rimis, 185 1, p. 30, has a small collection 
of dfjLOLoreXevra gathered out of Greek poetry, in which, however, 
they are by no means of so frequent occurrence as in Latin. The 
author of the treatise De Vita et Poesi Homeri, falsely ascribed to 
Plutarch, adduces (c. 35) the o/jlolot4\€vtov as one among the 
crxW aTa °f the Homeric poetry, and very distinctly recognizes the 
charm which rhyme has for the ear ; for, having instanced as an 
example the lines which follow, 

'Hwt' cdvea elci fjLe\LO~o~d(ov afiivdocv 
Tl€Tp7]s e/c yXatpvpriS del v4ov ipxofjLCvduv — 

he goes on to say : Td 5e elprjjjLcva Kai rd TOiavTa naXLCTTa irpojTiQriffi 
rf \6yy x a P lv K( d yb*ov7)v. 


have seen, was supprest without having ever reached its 
full and natural development. 

This much may be said in proof that the germs, so to 
speak, of rhyme were laid in the versification already 
existing, that it had that ' early anticipation ' which is 
urged as among the surest marks of a true development. 
Here indeed it would be a serious mistake to regard the 
hexameter or pentameter as the earliest sphere in which 
rhyme displayed itself, as that wherein the attempt was fiist 
made to reconcile the old and the new, and to preserve 
the advantages of both \ while only at a later day it was 
discovered that nothing of abiding value could result 
from this superinducing of rhyme upon a system of versi- 
flcation resting on a dirTerent basis altogether. The 
regular addition of rhyme to the old Greek and Latin 
metres, with all the artificial and laborious refinements 
into which this ran, was of much later date than the birth 
of rhyme itself in the Latin poetry of the Church, the 
first leonine verses, or hexameters with internal rhyme, 
not certainly dating higher than the sixth, and any large 
employment of them than the eighth or ninth, centuries ; 
other more elaborate arrangements of these rhymes being 
later still. Rhyme itself, on the contrary, belongs to the 
third and fourth centuries : and that poetry in which it 
first appears was far too genial and true a birth to have 
fallen into any tricks or merely artificial devices, the after- 
growth of the combined indolence and ingenuity of the 
cloister. 1 Rather it displayed itself first in lines, which, 

1 See the wonderfully curious and compiex rules about rhyme, 
and directions for an infmite variety of its possible arrangements, in 
Eberhard's Labyrinthus, a sort of Ars Poetica of the middle ages, 
published in Leyser's Hist. Poeit. Med. ^sz/z, pp. 832-837. Some- 

32 IN1R0DUC7I0N- 

having a little relaxed the strictness of metrical observ- 
ance, sought to find a compensation for this in similar 

thing may be fitly said here on the leonine, and other kinds of 
verses, more or less nearly related to the leonine, which figure so 
prominently in the literary productions of those ages. The name 
leonine, which is sometimes, although wrongly, extended to lines 
with final as well as with sectional or internal rhymes, has been 
variously derived from various persons of the name of Leo, who 
were presumed first to have written them. Thus Eberhard : 

Sunt inventoris de nomine dicta Leonis. 

Oftener still they have been derived from one Leonius or Leoninus, 
a canon of Notre Dame and Latin versifier of the twelfth century. 
We have a curious example here of the manner in which literary 
opinions, once started, are repeated again and again, no one taking 
the trouble to enquire into their truth. For, in the flrst place, it is 
certain that leonine verses existed long before his time. Muratori 
(Anit. Ital. Diss. 40) has abundantly proved this, adducing perfect 
leonine verses which belong to the eighth, ninth, and tenth cen- 
turies ; as the following, which do not date later than the ninth : 

Arbor sacra Crucis fit mundo semita lucis ; 
Quam qui portavit, nos Christus in astra levavit. 

And thus too J. Grimm (Latein. Ged. d. x. u. xi. Jahrh. p. xxiv.): 
In Deutschland erscheinen leoninische Verse gleich mit dem Beginn 
der lateinischen Dichtkunst, und sind die Lieblingsform der Monche 
vom neunten bis zum funfzehnten Jahrhundert. Some, still wishing 
to trace up the leonines to this Leonius, have urged, that though 
not the first to compose, he was the first to bring these verses to 
any perfection (Muratori, vol. iii. p. 687). But this is only prop- 
ping up error with error ; for Edelestand du Meril asserts (Poesies 
populaires Latines, p. 78) from actual inspection, that in his poetry, 
which is considerable in bulk, there does not occur a single leonine 
verse — except, I suppose, such accidental ones as will escape from 
almost every metrical writer in Latin. His chief poem, on the 
history of the Old Testament, is in the ordinary heroic metre. 
There is indeed one epistle written with final or tail rhymes, but 
no other portion of his poetry with rhyme at all. Du Meril himself 


closes to the verse — being at this first very far from 
that elaborate and perfect instrument which it afterwards 

falls in with the other derivation, namely, that this metre was so 
called, because as the lion is king of beasts, so is this the king of 
metres ; or as one has said : Leonini dicuntur a leone, quia sicut 
leo inter alias feras majus habet dominium, ita hcec species versuum. 
Slow as one may be to admit this kingly superiority of the leonine 
verse, it must be acknowledged that sometimes it is no infelicitous 
form for an epigram or a maxim, uttering it both with point and 
conciseness. We may take the following in proof : 

Permutant mores homines, cum dantur honores : 
Corde stat inflato pauper honore dato. 

Or this, expressing an important truth in the spiritual life : 

Cum bene pugnabis, cum cuncta subacta putabis, 
Quas mox infestat, vincenda superbia restat. 

or this, 011 the different ways in which wise and foolish accept 

reproof : 

Argue consultum, te diliget ; argue stultum, 
Avertet vultum, nec te dimittet inultum. 

or on hid talents : 

In mundo duo sunt, quDe nil, abscondita, prosunt ; 
Fossus humi census, latitans in pectore sensus. 

or this, on the permanence of early impressions : 

Qua? nova testa capit, inveterata sapit. 
or this, 011 the false of tongue : 

Os nectar promit, mens aconita vomit. 

or this, on the venality of the Roman Court : 

Curia Romana non quasrit ovem sine lana ; 
Dantes exaudit, non dantibus ostia claudit. 

or once more, 011 the need of elementary teaching : 
Parvis imbutus, tentabis grandia tutus. 


became. We may trace it step by step from its rude 
timid, and imcertain beginnings, till, in the later hymno- 

or this, containing a maxim worthy of Goethe : 

Qui nescit partes in vanum tendit ad artes; 
Artes per partes, non partes disce per artes. 

Not a few proverbs clothe themselves in this form ; as the fol- 
owing : 

Est avis in dextra melior quam quattuor extra. 

Non habet anguillam, per caudam qui tenet illam. 

Sepes calcatur qua pronior esse putatur. 

Amphora sub veste raro portatur honeste. 

Quo minime reris de gurgite pisce frueris. 

And here is a brief epigram in praise of Clairvaux : 

Clara vale Vallis, plus claris clara metallis ; 
Tu, nisi me fallis, es rectus ad aethera callis. 

They were sometimes used in more festive verse, which also they 
did not misbecome : 

Cervisiae sperno potum, praesente Falerno, 
Sed tamen hanc quaero, deficiente mero. 

Est pluris bellus sonipes quam parvus asellus, 
Hoc equitabo pecus, si mihi desit equus. 

And here is a bitter epigram on the villeln of the middle ages, one 
of the many sayings which help to bridge over the space between 
the word's original and present meaning : 

Quando mulcetur villanus, pejor habetur: 
Ungentem pungit, pungentem rusticus ungit. 

And the writer of this one expresses without reserve his opinion of 
lawyers : 

Dirue Juristas, Deus, ut Satanoe citharistas; 

O Deus, extingues hos pingues atque bilingues. 1 

The story of Boniface the Eighth's pontificate is summed up in 
another couplet : 

Vulpes intravit, tanquam leo pontificavit ; 

Exiit utque canis,*de divite factus inanis. 


logists of the twelfth and thirteenth century, an Aquinas, 
or an Adam of St. Victor, it displayed all its latent capa- 

Easily recollected, they were much in use to assist keeping in 
remembrance the arrangement of the Church Calendar, and the 
order of the Festivals. Durandus in his Rationale often quotes 
them. Jacob Grimm observes well : In ihnen ergeht sich die 
Kloster-Poesie am behaglichsten, und ihre Feierlichkeit fordert 
sie : daher Inschriften fiir Graber und Glocken, kleinere Spriiche 
und Memorabilien fast nur in ihnen verfasst wurden : sie tonen 
auch nicht selten klangvoll und prachtig. Thus on the fillet of a 
church-bell it was common to have these lines : 

Festa sonans mando, cum funere praelia pando; 
Meque fugit quando resono cum fulmine grando. 

The Frankish monarchs, as claiming to be emperors of Rome, had 
a leonine verse on their seals : » 

Roma caput mundi regit orbis frsena rotundi. 

In most of these lines there is a certain strength and energy. Here 
is a somewhat longer specimen, drawn from a poem by Reginald, 
an English Benedictine monk, contemporary and friend of Anselm 
and Hildebert : 

Saepe jacet ventus, dormit sopita juventus : 
Aura vehit lenis, natat undis cymba serenis ; 
^Equore sed multo Nereus, custode sepulto, 
Torquet et invertit navem dum navita stertit : 
Mergitur et navis, quamvis vehat aura suavis : 
Res tandem blandae sunt mortis causa nefandae. 

A brief analysis of this poem, and further quotations not without an 
elegance of their own, may be found in Sir A. Crooke's Essay 011 
tlie History of Rkyming Latin Verse, pp. 63-75. These too of 
Hildebert on the Crucifixion are good : 

Vita subit letum, dulcedo potat acetum : 

Non homo sed vermis, armatum vincit inermis, 

Agnus praedonem, vitulus moriendo leonem. 

This too is curious, every word in the second line corresponding 
to a word in the first : 

D 2 


bilities, and attained its final glory and perfection, satia- 
ting the ear with a richness of melody scarcely anywhere 

Quos anguis tristi vims mulcedine pavit, 
Hos sanguis Christi mirus dulcedine lavit. 

It is worthy of observation how, during the middle ages, rhyme 
sought to penetrate and make a place for itself everywhere. Thus 
we have leonine sapphics as well as leonine hexameters and penta- 
meters. The following may belong to the twelfth or thirteenth 
century (Hommey, Supplementum Patrum, p. 179), and, like the 
poem of Commodianus (see p. 11), must be scanned by accent 
only, and not by prosody : 

Virtutum chori, summo qui Rectori 
Semper astatis atque jubilatis, 
Ovis remotse memores estote, 

Nosque juvate. 
Felices estis, patriae coelestis 
Cives, cunctorum nescii malorum, 
Quce nos infestant, miseramque pnestant 

Undique vitam. 

Hexameters and pentameters with final rhymes, and these fol- 
lowing close upon one another, as in our heroic verse, not artifi- 
cially interlaced (interlaqueati), as in our sonnet or Spenserian 
stanza, were called caudati, as having tails (caudce). They were 
not, I think, quite as much cultivated as the leonine, although of 
them also immense numbers were written ; nor do they very often 
reach the strength and precision which the leonine sometimes 
attain ; yet they too are capable of a certain terseness and even 
elegance, of the same character as we have seen the leonine verses 
to display. Thus Hildebert describes how the legal shadows are 
outlines of the truth, which as such disappear and flee away, Christ 
the substance being come : 

Agnus enim legis carnales diluit actus, 
Agnum praesignans, qui nos lavat hostia factus : 
Quis locus aurone, postquam sol venit ad ortum? 
Quisve locus votis, teneat quum navita portum? 


to be surpassed. At first the rhymes were often merely 
vowel or assonant ones, the consonants not being re- 

He sums up in two lines the moral of Luke xiv. 16-24 : 

Villa, boves, uxor, ccenam clausere vocatis : 
Mundus, cura, caro, caelum clausere renatis. 

And here is a favourite maxim of the Augustinian theology, and 
almost in Augustine's words : 

Quidquid habes meriti prseventrix gratia donat ; 
Nil Deus in donis proeter sua dona coronat. 

A passing and repassing from one of these arrangements of rhyme 
to the other is not uncommon. Thus*to quote Hildebert again 
(Opp. p. 1260), and here, as everywhere, I seek to make citations 
which, besides illustrating the matter directly in hand, have more 
or less an independent merit of their own : 

Crux non clara parum spoliis spoliavit avarum ; 
Crux lsetae sortis victi tenet atria fortis; 
Crux indulcavit laticem, potumque paravit ; 
Crux silicem fregit, et aquas exire coegit. 
Crux per serpentem, Crucifixi signa gerentem, 
Laesos sanavit, laedentes mortificavit ; 
Crux crucis opprobrium, Crux ligni crimen ademit; 
Crux de peccato, Cmx nos de morte redemit ; 
Crux miseros homines in cselica jura reduxit; 
Omne bonum nobis cum sanguine de Cruce fluxit. 

Or take another example from the Carmen Parameticam ascribed to 
St. Bernard {Opp., vol. ii. p. 909): 

Amplius in rebus noli sperare caducis, 
Sed tua mens cupiat seternae gaudia lucis : 
Fallitur insipiens vitae prsesentis amore, 
Sed sapiens noscit quanto sit plena dolore. 
Quidquid formosum mundus gerit et pretiosum 
Floris habet morem, cui dat natura colorem; 
Mox ut siccatur, totus color annihilatur ; 
Postea nec florem monstrat, nec spirat odorem. 


quired to agree ; or the rhyme was adhered to, when this 
was convenient, but disregarded as often as the needful 
word was not readily at hand ; or the stress of the rhyme 
was suffered to fall on an unaccented syllable, thus 
scarcely striking the ear ; or it was limited to the similar 
termination of a single letter ; while sometimes, on the 
strength of this like ending, as sufficiently sustaining the 

He presently passes back from the leonine to the tail rhymes, 
intermingling besides with these a third form, springing from a 
combination of the two. The caudati tripertiti are divided, as 
their name indicates, into three sections, each containing two feet ; 
the first and second sections in every line rhyme with one another, 
and so far they resemble the leonine ; but they are also tai/ed, in 
that the close of one line rhymes with the close of the succeeding. 
I know none of this kind which are not almost too bad to quote. 
Here however is a specimen : 

Est data scevam causa per Evam perditionis, 
Dum meliores sperat honores voce draconis. 

They are curious, however, inasmuch as in these triparted distichs 
we trace the rudiments, as F. YVolf has clearly shown (Ueber die 
Lais, p. 200), of that much employed six-line strophe of our 
modern poetry, in which the rhymes are disposed thus, a a b c c b, 
the stanza which has attained its final glory in Wordsworth's 
Ruth ; each of the Latin lines falling into three sections, and thus 
the couplet expanding into the strophe of six lines. Besides Wolf s 
admirable treatise just referred to, there are two treatises on the 
rhymed poetry of the middle ages in Gebaz-cri Antho/ogia Disserta- 
tionum, Lips., 1733 ; one, p. 265, Pro Rhythmis, seu Omoioteleutis 
Poeticis ; another by Elias Major, p. 299, De Versibus Leoninis. 
Sir A. Crooke, in his Essay ou Rhyming Latin Verse, has drawn 
freely on these, but has also information of his own. Later than 
these is the little Essay by Schuch, referred to already, p. 30 ; while 
on rhyme in general there is Poggel, Grundziige eiuer Theone des 
Reims, Miinster, 1836; J. Grimm, Zur Geschichte des Reims ; and 
Gerber, Syrache als Kunst, vol. ii. p. 162, sqq. 


melody, the whole other construction of the verse, and 
arrangement of the syllables, was neglected. l 

The first in whose hymns there are distinct traces 
of the adoption of rhyme is Hilary, who died bishop of 
Poitiers in 368. His hymn on the Epiphany, 

Jesus refulsit omnium 
Pius redemptor gentium, 

consists of eight quatrains, the four lines composing each 
of which have a like termination, while othenvise they 
observe the ordinary laws of the iambic dimeter. In 
the hymn of Pope Damasus (who died a very few years 
later) on St. Agatha, the four lines of the quatrain do 
not rhyme all together, but two and two ; and the verses 
consist, or are intended to consist, of three dactyles with 
a terminal rhyming syllable, as thus : 

Stirpe decens, elegans specie, 
Sed magis actibus atque ftde, 
Terrea prospera nil reputans, 
Jussa Dei sibi corde ligans. 

It is true that earlier than either of these is the poem of 

1 It may be that they who first used it, were oftentimes scarcely 
or not at all conscious of what they were doing. Thus Ampere 
says veiy beautifully upon the hymns of St. Ambrose, in which he 
traces such unconscious preludings to the later rhymed poetry of 
Christendom : Ces hymnes sont versifies d'apres la regle de la 
jnetrique ancienne, mais il est curieux de voir une tendance a la 
rime se produire evidemment dans ces strophes analogues a celles 
d'Horace. Ce qui sera le fondement de la prosodie des temps 
modemes, la rime, n'est pas encore une loi de la versification, et 
deja un besoin mysterieux de 1'oreille 1'introduit dans les vers pour 
-ainsi dire a Finsu de 1'oreille elle-meme {Hist. Litt. de la Irance, 
vol. i. p. 411). Compare Pater, \Studies in the Histoiy of ihe 
Renaissance, p. 7. 


Commodianus (see p. n), and that in one section of this 
all the words end in o. This could not be accidental; 
yet at the same time, as nothing similar occurs in other 
parts of the poem, it must be counted, where it does 
appear, rather as an arbitrary ornament than an essential 
element, of the rhythm. 

Seeing, then, that it thus lies in our power to trace 
distinctly, and as it were step by step, the rise and 
growth of the Latin rhymed poetry, to preside at its very 
birth and cradle, — one cannot but wonder at a very 
common assertion, namely, that it borrowed rhyme from 
languages, which assuredly do not now preserve any 
examples in this kind that are not of far later origin than 
much which we possess in the Latin tongue. ' I know 
of no poem/ says Dr. Guest, 1 'written in a Gothic dialect 
with fmal rhyme, before Otfrid's Evangely. This was 
written in Frankish, about the year 870/ He, it is true, 
supposes the Latin rhymers to have gotten rhyme from 
the Celtic races,— among some of whom undoubtedly it 
existed very early, as among the Welsh in the sixth cen- 
tury — and then in their turn to have imparted it to the 
Teutonic nations. But a necessity for this unlikely hypo- 
thesis rests only on the assumption, that 'the Romans 
were confessedly ignorant of rhyme.' Certainly, if we 
found it in the Latin poetry suddenly starting up in its 
final perfection, complete and lacking nothing, — as we 
do fmd some of the Greek lyric metres, the complex 
alcaic, for example, in the pages of Horace, — we could 
then hardly come to any other conclusion, but that it had 
been imported ab extra, even though w r e might not be 
able to say with certainty from what quarter it had been 

1 Hisiory of English Rhythms^ vol. i. p. 119. 


obtained. But everything about its introduction serves 
rather to mark it as autochthonic. 1 We see it in its weak 
and indistinct beginnings, not yet knowing itself or its 
own importance; we mark its irregular application at 
first \ the lack of skill in its use ; the poor assonances in- 
stead of the full consonances \ with an only gradual dis- 
covery of all which it was capable of erTecting; — the 
chimes having been at first, probably, but happy chances, 
found, like the pointed arch, without having been sought ; 
which yet, being once lighted on, the instinct of genius 
did not let go, but adopted and improved, as that very 
thing which it needed, and unconsciously had been feel- 
ing after; and now at length as by a felicitous hazard 
had attained. 

But when we thus refuse to admit that the Latin rhym- 
ing poetry borrowed its rhyme from the Romance or 
Gothic languages, we are not therefore obliged to accept 
the converse, and with Tyrwhitt 2 and others to assume 
that they obtained it from the Latin, however that might 
be of the two the more tolerable supposition. For, after 
the investigations of later years, no one ought any longer 
to affirm rhyme to have been the exclusive invention of 
any one people, and from them to have past over into 

1 Ampere has expressed the same conviction. Of the Latin 
poetry of the eleventh century he says : La tendance a la rime, qui 
nous avait deja frappes chez saint Ambroise, a toujours ete, de 
siecle en siecle, s'accusant plus nettement. Au temps ou nous 
sommes parvenus, elle a fini par triompher. Ce qui n'etait d'abord 
qu'une fantaisie de l'oreille a fini par devenir un besoin imperieux 
et par se transformer en loi. II n'est donc pas necessaire de 
chercher d'autre origine a la rime ; elle est nee du sein de la poesie 
latine degeneree. 

2 Essay on the Langiiage and Versification of Chaucer, p. 51. 



other languages and literatures ; which Warton and Sis- 
mondi have done, who derive it originally from the Arabs. 
Rhyme can as little be considered the exclusive discovery 
of any one people as of any single age. It is rather, like 
poetry, like music, like dramatic representation, the 
natural result of a deep craving of the human mind ; as 
it is the well-nigh inevitable adjunct of a poetry not 
quantitative, being almost certain to make a home for 
itself therein. This last point has been well expressed, 
and the causes of it rightly stated by a writer already 
quoted, and whose words must always carry weight : l 
c When the same modification of sound recurs at definite 
intervals, the coincidence very readily strikes the ear, and 
when it is found in accented syllables, such syllables fix 
the attention more strongly than if they merely received 
the accent. Hence we may perceive the importance of 
rhyme in accentual verse. It is not, as it is sometimes 
asserted, a mere omament: it marks and defines the 
accent, and thereby strengthens and supports the rhythm. 
Its advantages have been felt so strongly, that no people 
have ever adopted an accentual rhythm, without also 
adopting rhyme.' 

In this the universality of rhyme, as in the further fact 
that it is peculiar neither to the rudeness of an early and 
barbarous age, nor to the over-refined ingenuity of a late 
and artificial one, but runs through whole literatures from 
their beginning to their end, we find its best defence ;— 
or, more accurately, that which exempts it from needing 
any defence against charges like that brought by Ascham, 2 

1 Guest, History of EnglisJi Rhythms^ vol. i. p. II 6. 
3 The ScJioolmaster, book ii. 


by Ben Jonson, 1 and by Milton against it; 2 for there is 
here the evidence that it lies deep in our human nature, 
and satisfies an universal need, since otherwise so many 
people would not have lighted upon it, or having lighted, 
so inflexibly maintained it For we do encounter it 
everywhere — in the extreme West, in the earliest Celtic 
poems, Welsh and Irish — in the further East, among the 
Chinese, in the Sanscrit, — and no less in the Persian and 
Arabic poetry, — in the Gothic and Scandinavian ; — no 
formal discovery, as no borrowed skill, in any case ; but 
in all the well-nigh instinctive result of that craving after 
periodic recurrence, proportion, limitation, — of that sense 
out of which all rhythm and all metre springs, namely, 
that the streams of passion must have banks within which 
to flow, if they are not to waste and lose themselves alto- 
gether, — with the desire to mark and to make distinctly 
noticeable to the ear these limitations and restraints, 
which the verse, for its own ultimate good, imposes upon 
itself. 3 We may observe that the prosodic poetry of 

1 See the 47th of his Unde;~zvoods, beginning 

'Rhyme, the rack of finest wits.' 

2 It will be remembered what he calls it in the few words which 
he has prelixed to Paradise Lost — 'the invention of a barbarous 
age, to set off wretched matter and lame metre ; . . . . a thing of 
itself to all judicious ears trivial and of no true musical delight ' — 
with much more in the same strain. Over against this we might 
set what I much esteem the wiser words of Daniel in his Defence of 
Rhyme, of Sir John Beaumont in his True Form ofEnglish Poetty, 
Grosart's ed., p. 119; or indeed more honourably confute him 
out of his own mouth, and by the fact that the noblest lyrics which 
English literature possesses, being his own, are rhymed. 

8 Ewald (On the Poetic Books of ihe Old Testamejit y vol. i. p. 57) 
has expressed himself very profoundly on this matter : ' A stream of 
words and images, an overflowing and impetuous diction, a move- 


Greece and Rome was equally obliged to mark this, 
though it did it in another way. Thus, had dactyles and 
spondees been allowed to be promiscuously used through-: 
out the hexameter line, no satisfying token would have 
reached the ear to indicate the close of the verse ; and if 
the hearer had once missed the termination of the line, 
it would have been almost impossible for him to recover 
it. But the fixed dactyle and spondee at the end of the 
line answer the same purpose of strongly marking the 
close, as does the rhyme in the accentuated verse : and 
in other metres, in like manner, licenses permitted in the 
beginning of the line are excluded at its close, the motives 
for this greater strictness being the same. 

The non-recognition of this, man's craving after, and 
deep delight in, the rhythmic and periodic — a craving 
which nature everywhere meets and gratifies, and which 
all truest art seeks to gratify as well, — a seeing nothing 
in all this but a trick and artifice applied from without, — ■ 
lies at the root of that singular theory concerning the 
unfitness of poetry to be the vehicle for our highest ad- 
dresses to God and most reverent utterances about Him, 
which the accomplished author of the Day in the Sanc- 

ment which in its first violence seems to know no bounds nor con- 
trol — such is the earliest manifestation of poetic diction ! But a 
diction which should only continue in this its earliest movement, 
and hurry onward, without bounds and without measure, would 
soon destroy its own beauty, even its very life. Yea rather, the 
more living and overflowing this onward movement is, by so much 
the more needful the restraint and the limitation, the counteraction 
and tranquillization, of this becomes. This mighty inspiration and 
exspiration ; this rise with its commensurate fall ; this advance in 
symmetrical diction, which shall combine rest and motion with one 
another, and mutually reconcile them ; this is rhythm, or regulated 
beautiful movement.' 


iaary has put forth in the preface to that volume. Any 
one who, with at all the skill in versification and com- 
mand over language which he himself has manifested 
elsewhere, undertakes to comply with the requirements 
which verse imposes, knows that the obligations which 
he thus assumes are very far from being felt as a bondage, 
but rather that here, as everywhere else, to move accord- 
ing to law is felt to be the freest movement of all. 1 
Every one, too, who without this peculiar experience 
has watched the effect on his own mind of the orderly 
marching of a regiment, or of the successive breaking of 
waves upon the shore, or of aught else which is thus 
rhythmic and periodic, knows that in this, inspiring as it 
does the sense of order, and proportion, and purpose, 
there is ever an elevating and solemnizing power — a 
truth to which language, the best, because the most 
unconscious, witness, sets its seal, having in the Latin 
but one and the same word, for the solemn and the 

I have said above, that we are not bound to assume 
that the poetries of modern Europe derived rhyme from 
the Latin ; because we reject the converse proposition, 

1 Goethe's noble words, uttered with a larger intention, have 
yet their application here : 

Vergebens werden ungebundne Geister 
Nach der Vollendung reiner Hohe streben : 
I11 der Beschrdnkung zeigt sich erst der Meister, 
Und das Gesetz nur kann uns Freiheit geben. 
Some will remember the exquisite art with which in the second 
part of Faust Helen of Greece first notes the harmonious working 
of rhyme on her own spirit, and presently as by instinct glides into 
the use of it herself. 


that the Latin derived it from them. At the same time 
the medieval Latin poetry, without standing in so close 
a technical relation as this to the modern poetry of 
Europe, without having been thus the source from which 
the latter obtained its most characteristic ornament, does 
yet stand in most true and living relation to it ; has 
exerted upon it an influence which probably has been 
scarcely estimated as highly as it deserves. To how 
great an extent must it have acted as a conductor of the 
thoughts and images of the old world to the new, making 
the treasures of that old world to be again the heritage of 
the popular mind — treasures which would else have been 
locked up till the more formal revival of learning, then 
perhaps to become not the possession of the many, but 
only of the few. How important was the part which it 
played, filling up spaces that were in a great measure 
unoccupied by any other works of imagination at all ; 
lending to men an organ and instrument by which to 
utter their thoughts, when as yet the modern languages 
of Europe were in the first process of their formation, 
and quite unfit to be the adequate clothing for these. 

Thus the earliest form in which the Reineke FucJis, the 
great fable-epic of the middle ages, appeared, — the signi^ 
ficance of which in European literature, no one capable 
of forming a judgment on the matter will lightly esteem, — 
is now acknowledged to have been Latin. A poem in 
four books, in elegiac metre, whose author is unknown, 
supplied mediately or immediately the ground-plan to all 
the subsequent dispositions of the matter. Of course it 
is not meant hereby to deny the essentially popular 
character of the poem, or to affirm that the Latin poet 
invented that, which, no doubt, already lived upon the 


lips of the people ; but only that in this Latin the fable- 
lore of the German world first took shape, and found a 
distinct utterance for itself. 1 And thus, too, out of that 
dreariest tenth century, that wastest place, as it is rightly 
esteemed, of European literature and of the human mind, 
Jacob Grimm has published a brief Latin epic of very 
high merit ; 2 while Fulbert, bishop of Chartres, who died 
early in the eleventh (1027), could celebrate the song of 
the nightingale in strains such as these : 

Cum telluris, vere novo, producuntur germina, 
Nemorosa circumcirca frondescunt et brachia; 
Fragrat odor cum suavis florida per gramina, 
Hilarescit Philomela, dulcis sonus 3 conscia, 
Et extendens modulando gutturis spiramina, 
Reddit veris et aestivi temporis prseconia. 
Instat nocti et diei voce sub dulcisona, 
Soporatis dans quietem cantus per discrimina 
Necnon pulcra viatori laboris solatia. 
Vocis ejus pulcritudo clarior quam cithara ; 
Vincitur omnis cantando volucrum catervula ; 
Implet sylvas atque cuncta modulis arbustula 
Gloriosa valde facta veris prce lsetitia. 
Volitando scandit alta arborum cacumina, 
Ac festiva satis gliscit sibilare carmina. 
Cedit auceps ad frondosa resonans umbracula, 
Cedit olor et suavis ipsius melodia; 
Cedit tibi tympanistra et sonora tibia ; 

1 The existence of such an original was long unsuspected, even 
after an earnest interest had been awakened in the Reineke Fuchs 
itself. It was first published by Mone, Reinhardus Vulpes, Stuu> 
gart, 1832. 

2 Wa/tharius. It had been published indeed before ; and has 
since been so by Du Meril, Poesies popul. Lat. 1843, pp. 313-377. 

3 Sonus reappears here as of the fourth declension (see Freund^ 
Lai. Worterbuch, s. v.). 


Quamvis enim videaris corpore permodica, 
Tamen cuncti capiuntur hac tua melodia : 
Xemo dedit voci tuce hoec dulcia carmina, 
Xisi solus Rex caelestis qui gubernat omnia. 1 

Surely with all its rudeness and deficiencies this poem 
tias the true passion of nature, and contains in it the 
prophecy and pledge of much more than it actually 
accomplishes. In that 

Gloriosa valde facta veris prae loetitia, 

we have no weak prelude of that rapturous delight which 
at a later day has given us such immortal hymns as the 
Ode to the Sky/ark, by Shelley. 

Or consider these lines of Marbod, bishop of Rheims 
in the twelfth century ; which, stiffly and awkwardly 
versified as they may be, have yet a deep interest, as 

1 D. Falbcrti Opera Varia, Paris, 1608, p. 181. I believe we 
owe to Dr. Neale the following very graceful translation : 

* When the earth, with spring returning, vests herself in fresher 

sheen, ' 
And the glades and leafy thickets are arrayed in living green ; 
"When a sweeter fragrance breatheth flowery fields and vales 'along, 
Then, triumphant in her gladness, Philomel begins her song : 
And with thick delicious warble far and wide her notes she flings, 
Telling of the happy spring tide and the joys that summer brings. 
In the pauses of men's slumber deep and full she pours her voice, 
In the labour of his travel bids the wayfarer rejoice. 
Kight and day, from bush and greenwood, sweeter than an 

earthly lyre, 

She, unwearied songstress, carols, distancing the feathered choir, 
Fills the hillside, fills the valley, bids the groves and thickets ring, 
Made indeed exceeding glorious through the joyousness of spring. 
None could teach such heavenly music, none implant such tuneful 

Save the King of realms celestial, who doth all things as He will.' 


tonching on those healing inflnences of nature, the sense 
of which is almost, if not entirely, confmed to modern, 
that is to Christian, art. They belong to a poem on the 
coming of the spring ; and, as the reader will observe, 
are in leonine hexameters : 

Moribus esse feris prohibet me gratia veris, 
Et formam mentis mihi mutuor ex elementis. 
Ipsi naturae congratulor, ut puto, jure : 
Distinguunt flores diversi mille colores, 
Gramineum vellus superinduxit sibi tellus, 
Fronde virere nemus et fructificare videmus ; 
Egrediente rosa viridaria sunt speciosa. 
Qui tot pulcra videt, nisi flectitur et nisi ridet, 
Intractabilis est, et in ejus pectore lis est ; 
Qui speciem terrae non vult cum laude referre, 
Invidet Auctori, cujus subservit honori 
Bruma rigens, aestas, auctumnus, veris honestas. ! 

Can it be denied that the old monkish poet is anticipating 
here — and however faintly, yet distinctly — such strains as 
the great poets of nature in our own day have caused to be 
heard — the conversion of the witch Maimuna in Thalaba, 
Peter Bell, or those loveliest lines in Coleridge's Remorse ? 

1 With other ministrations thou, O Nature, 
Healest thy wandering and distempered child; 
Thou pourest on him thy soft influences, 
Thy sunny hues, fair forms, and breathing sweets, 
Thy melodies of woods, and winds, and waters ! 
Till he relent, and can no more endure 
To be a jarring and a dissonant thing 
Amid this general dance and minstrelsy ; 
But bursting into tears wins back his way, 
His angry spirit healed and harmonized 
By the benignant touch of love and beauty.' 

1 Hildeberti et Marbodi Opera, ed. Beaugendre, Paris, 1708, 
p. 1617. 



Hard measure is often dealt to this poetry. 1 Men 
come to it with a taste formed on quite other 
models ; they try it by laws other than its own \ by the 
approximation which it makes to a standard which is so 
far from being its standard, that the nearer it reaches this, 
the further removed from any true value it is. They come 
trying the Gothic cathedral by the laws of the Greek 
temple \ and because they do not find in it that which, in 
its very fidelity to its own idea, it cannot have, they treat 
it as worthy only of neglect and contempt. Nor less 
have they forgotten, in estimating the worth of this 
poetry, that much which appears trite and commonplace 
to us was yet very far from being so at its first utterance. 2 

1 Few are so just to it as Bahr {Die Christl. Dichter Rom's, 
p. 10) : Wenn wir daher auch nicht unbedingt die Ansicht der- 
jenigen theilen konnen, welche die Einfiihrung dieser christlichen 
Dichter statt der heidnischen in Schulen zum Zwecke des Sprach- 
unterrichts wie zur Bildung eines acht christlichen Gemiiths vor- 
schlagen, aus Griinden, die zuoffen da liegen, um weiterer Ausfiihrung 
zu bediirfen, die auch nie, selbst im Mittelalter, verkannt worden 
sind, so glauben wir doch dass es zweckmassig und von wesent- 
lichem Xutzen seyndiirfte, den Erzeugnissen christlicher Poesieauch 
auf unseren hoheren Bildungsanstalten eine grossere Aufmerksam- 
keit zuzuwenden, als diess bisher der Fall war, die Jugend demnach 
in den obern Classen der Gymnasien und Lyceen mit den vorziig- 
licheren Erscheinungen dieser Poesie, die ihnen jetzt so ganz fremd 
ist und bleibt, bekannt zu machen, ja selbst einzelne Stiicke solcher 
Dichtungen in die Chrestomathien Lateinischer Dichter, in denen 
sie wahrlich, auch von anderen Standpunkten aus betrachtet, eine 
Stelle neben manchen Productionen der heidnischen Zeit verdienen, 
aufzunehmen, um so zugleich den lebendigen Gegensatz der heid- 
nischen und christlichen Welt und Poesie erkennen zu lassen, und 
jugendlichen Gemiithern friihe einzupragen. 

2 Ampere (vol. iii. p. 213) says with truth, and on this very 
matter : Ce qui est peu important pour 1'histoire de l'art peut 1'etre 
beaucoup pour 1'histoire de 1'esprit humain. 



When the Teutonic races which divided the Roman em- 
pire began to crave intellectual and spiritual food, in the 
healthy hunger of their youth there lay the capacity of 
deriving truest nourishment from that which to us, partly 
from our far wider range of choice, and partly from a 
satiated appetite, seems little calculated to yield it. 1 

1 Ferdinand Wolf, in his instructive work, Ueber die Lais, p. 281, 
and Jacob Grimm, have both observed, that a history of this 
medieval Latin poetry is a book still waiting to be written, one too 
which, when it is written, will fill up a huge gap in the literary 
history of Europe. We have nothing in the kind but Leyser's 
compendium, Historia Poetarum et Poematum Medii JEvi, Halae, 
1721, which would have its use, though chiefly by its copious 
literary notices, for the future labourer in this field ; but for a book 
making, as by its title it does, some claim to completeness, 
absurdly fragmentary and imperfect — and this, even when is added 
to it another essay, which Leyser published two years earlier, Diss. 
defictd Medii ALvi Barbarie, imprimis circa Poesin Latinam, Helm- 
stadt, 1719. Less complete than even in his own day he might 
have made it, it is far more deficient now, when so much bearing 
on the subject has been brought to light, which was then unknown. 
The volume, too, is as much at fault in what it has, as in what it has 
not — including as it does long poems of very slightest merits ; and 
from which an extract or two would have abundantly surhced. 
Edelestand du Meril's two volumes, Poesies populaires Latines 
anterieures au douzieme Siec/e, Paris, 1843, an d Poesies populaires 
Latines du Moyen Age, Pans, 1847, contain many valuable notices, 
and poems which had not previously, or had only partially or in- 
correctly, been printed. But, as the titles indicate, they have only 
to do with the popular Latin poetry of the middle ages. — Whoever 
undertakes such a work, must be one who esteems as the glory of 
this poetry, and not the shame, that it seeks to emancipate itself, if 
not always from the forms, yet always from the spirit, of the 
classical poetry of the old world, that it desires to stand on its own 
ground, to grow out of its own root. Indeed no one else would 
have sufhcient love to the subject to induce him to face the labours 
and wearinesses which it would involve. The later Latin poetry, 

E 2 


But considerations of this kind would lead me too far, 
and lie too wide of the immediate scope of this volume, 
to allow me to follow them further. Already what I 

that which has flourished since the so-called revival of learning, and 
which has drawn its inspiration not from the Church, but from 
ancient classical literature, has found a very careful and enthusiastic 
historian ; but one who, according to my convictions, has begun his 
work just where nearly all of any true value has ended, leaving un- 
touched the whole period which really offers much of any deep or 
abiding interest. I mean Budik, in his work, leben u?id Wh'ken 
der vorziiglichsten latein. Dichter des XV. — XVIII. Jahrhunderts ', 
Vienna, 1828. Such, however, was not his mind, who could 
express himself about the Christian middle ages with a fanaticism 
of contempt, possible some forty or fifty years ago, but hardly so 
now, when we are in danger rather of exaggerations in the other 
extreme. He says : ' Since the ages of Pericles and Augustus, the 
perfect creations of which enjoy an everlasting youth, until the 
middle of the fifteenth century, one sees nothing but a waste, whose 
dreary and barren uniformity is only broken by some scattered 
brushwood, and whose most vigorous productions awaken rather 
astpnishment than admiration.' For a juster judgement of the 
Italian Christian poetry of the Renaissance see Burckhardt, Die 
Cultur der Renaissance in Italien, 1869, pp. 202-207. For myself, I 
never so felt the heartless inanity of modern Latin poetry as, when 
looking over the entire three volumes of Budik (and I have repeated 
the experiment with much larger collections), I could find no single 
poem or fragment of a poem which I cared to use, save, indeed, a 
few lines from Casimir, with which I was already acquainted. It 
is out of no affected preference of the old that my selections from 
modern Latin poetry are so few. If Vida, or Sannazar, or Buchanan, 
or any other of the moderns, would have offered anything of value, 
I would gladly have adopted it ; but repeatedly seeking for some- 
thing, I always sought in vain. — Since this note was written thus 
far, there have appeared two elaborate articles on Medurual Latin 
Poetry in The ChrisUan Remembrancer, Oct. 1866, and Jan. 1867. 
They have their merit ; but the work which I miss still remains 
to be written. 


thought to put into a few paragraphs has insensibly grown 
into an essay. I may not further encroach upon the 
room which I would reserve for other men's words, rather 
than pre-occupy with my own : and whatever else might 
have been said upon the subject, 

spatiis exclusus iniquis, 

Nor do I unwillingly conclude with words of his, the 
chiefest in Latin art, for whom our admiration need not 
one jot be diminished by our ability to admire Latin verse 
composed on very different principles from his ; and, if 
possessing, yet needing also, large compensations, for all 
which it has not, but which he with his illustrious fellows 
has ; and which must leave, in so many aspects, the great 
masterpieces of Greece and Rome for ever without rival 
or peer. 



OF the life of Adam of St Victor, the most fertile, and,. 
in my judgement, the greatest of the Latin hymno- 
logists of the middle ages, very little is known. He was 
probably a native of Brittany, although the terms Brito y 
Breton, which in the early writers indicate his country, 
leave in some doubt whether England might not have 
had the honour of giving him birth. The authors of the 
Histoire Litteraire de la France, vol. xv. p. 40-45, ac^ 
count this not altogether unlikely ; and it is certain that 
this illustrious foundation drew together its scholars from 
all parts of Europe ; thus, of its other two chiefest orna- 
ments, Hugh was a Saxon, and Richard a Scot. Yet the 
fact that France was the main seat of Latin poetry in the 
twelfth century, and that all the most famous composers 
in this kind, as Hildebert, the two Bernards, Abelard, 
Marbod, Peter the Venerable, were Frenchmen, leaves it 
more likely that he, the first and foremost of all, was 
such as well. Let this be as it may, he made his studies 
at Paris, where he entered the religious foundation of St. 
Victor, then in the suburbs, but at a later day included 
within the walls, of Paris, in which he continued to his 


death. The year of his death is unknown ; the Gallia 
Christiana places it somewhere between 1172 and 1192. 
Gautier, of whose edition of AdanVs hymns I shall have 
presently to speak, thinks the latter year itself to be the 
most probable date (vol. i. p. lxxxviii.). His epitaph, 
graven on a plate of copper in the cloister of St. Victor, 
near the door of the choir, remained till the general 
destruction of the first Revolution. The ten first verses 
of it, as Gautier has shown, are his own, and constituted 
an independent poem, which, under the title De Mistria 
HbminiSy is still to be found among his works. The four 
last were added by a later hand, so to fit them for an 
epitaph on their author. His own lines possess a grand 
moral flow, and are very well worthy to be quoted : 

Hceres peccati, natura filius irae, 

Exiliique reus nascitur omnis homo. 
Unde superbit homo, cujus conceptio culpa, 

Xasci pcena, labor vita, necesse mori ? 
Vana salus hominis, vanus decor, omnia vana ; 

Inter vana nihil vanius est homine. 
Dum magis alludit praesentis gloria vit^e, 

Prceterit, immo fugit ; non fugit, immo perit. 
Post hominem vermis, post vermem fit cinis, heu, heu ! 

Sic redit ad cinerem gloria nostra suum. 

Hic ego qui jaceo miser et miserabilis Adam, 
Unam pro summo munere posco precem : 

Peccavi, fateor, veniam peto, parce fatenti, , 
Parce pater, fratres parcite, parce Deus. 

We may certainly conclude that Adam of St. Victor 
shared to the full in the theological culture of the school 
to which he belonged. This, indeed, is evident from 
his hymns, which, like the poetry of Dante, have often- 
times as great a theological, as poetical or even devo- 


tional interest, the first indeed sometimes predominating 
to the injury of the last. The aim of that illustrious 
school of theology, above all in its two foremost repre- 
sentatives, Hugh, and his scholar Richard, of St. Victor, 
the first called in his own day Lingua Augustini, Alter 
Augustinus, and both of them contemporaries of Adam, 
though Hugh belonged to an elder generation, was to 
unite and harmoniously to reconcile the scholastic and 
mystic tendencies, the light and the warmth, which had 
appeared more in opposition in Abelard and Bernard : and 
to this its noble purpose and aim it long remained true : 
nor would it be easy to exaggerate the impulses for good 
which went forth from this institution during the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries upon the whole Church (see 
Liebner, Hugo von St. Victor, p. 9-16). It long re- 
mained faithful to the cultivation of sacred song : for, in 
later times, Santeuil, a poet, it is true, of a very different 
rank, and of a very different spirit, from him with whom 
we now have to do, was a Victorine as well. 

Very different estimates have been formed of the merits 
of Adam of St. Victor's hymns. His most zealous ad- 
mirers will hardly deny that he pushes too far, and plays 
overmuch with, his skill in the typical application of the 
Old Testament. 1 So too they must own that sometimes 

1 Calderon is often, consciously or unconsciously, an imitator of 
Adam of St. Victor's manner — knitting together, as he does, a 
succession of allusions to Old Testament types, and weaving them 
with more or less success into the woof of a single poem. This 
hymn, drawn from an Auto of his, on the Holy Eucharist, will 
illustrate what I mean : 

* Honey in the lion's mouth, 
Emblem mystical, divine, 


he is unable to fuse with a perfect success his manifold 

learned allusion into the passion of his poetry. How 

full of this learned allusion they are, I have had evidence 

while preparing this volume, in the amount of explana- 

tory notes which they required, — so far larger than almost 

any other equal quantity of verse which it contains. Xor 

less must it be allowed that he is sometimes guilty of 

conceits, of plays upon words, not altogether worthy of 

the solemnity of his theme. Thus of one martyr he 

says : 

Sub securi stat securus ;' 

1 How the sweet and strong combine ; 
Cloven rock for Israel's drouth ; 
Treasure-house of golden grain, 
By our Joseph laid in store, 
In his brethreivs famine sore 
Freely to dispense again ; 
Dew on Gideon's snowy fleece ; 
Well, from bitter changed to sweet ; 
Shewbread laid in order meet, 
Bread whose cost doth ne'er increase 
Though no rain in April fall ; 

Horeb's manna, freely given, 

Showered in white dew from heaven, 

Marvellous, angelical ; 

Weightiest bunch of Canaan's vine ; 

Cake to strengthen and sustain 

Through long days of desert pain ; 

Salem's monarch's bread and wine ; — 

Thou the antidote shalt be 

Of my sickness and my sin, 

Consolation, medicine, 

Life and Sacrament to me.' 

1 Augustine had already shewn him the way to this play of words. 
Addressing the sinner as the barren fig-tree of Luke xiii. 9, he says ; 


of another, St. Lawrence namely : 

Dum torretur, non terretur; 

of the blessed Virgin (for he did not escape, as it was 
not to be expected that he should, the exaggerations of 
his time) : 

O dulcis vena veniae ; 
of heaven : 

O quam beata curia, 
Quoe curae prorsus nescia. 

Sometimes too he is overfond of displaying feats of skill 
in versification, of prodigally accumulating, or curiously 
interlacing, his rhymes, that he may shew his perfect 
mastery of the forms which he is using, and how little he 
is confined or trammelled by them. 

These faults it will be seen are indeed most of them 
but merits pushed into excess. And even accepting them 
as defects, his profound acquaintance with the whole 
circle of the theology of his time, and eminently with its 
exposition of Scripture, — the abundant and admirable 
use, with indeed the drawback already mentioned, which 
he makes of it, delivering as he thus does his poems from 
the merely subjective cast of those, beautiful as they are, 
of St. Bernard — the exquisite art and variety with which 
for the most part his verse is managed and his rhymes 
disposed — their rich melody multiplying and ever deep- 
ening at the close — the strength which often he con- 
centrates into a single line 1 — his skill in conducting a 

Dilata est securis, noli esse secura ; and again : Distulit securim, 
non dedit securitatem. 

1 Thus of a Roman governor, who, alternating flatteries with 
threats, is seeking to bribe one of the early martyrs from her 



story l — and most of all, the evident nearness of the thmgs 
which he celebrates to his own heart of hearts — all these, 
and other excellencies, render him, as far as my judge- 
ment goes, the foremost among the sacred Latin poets of 
the middle ages. He may have no single poem to vie 
with the austere grandeur of the Dies Irce, nor yet with 
the tearful passion of the Stabat Mater, although con- 
cerning the last point there might well be a question ; 
but then it must not be forgotten that these stand well- 
nigh alone in the names of their respective authors, 
while from his ample treasure-house I shall enrich this 
volume with a multitude of hymns, all of them of con- 

allegiance to Christ, by the offer of worldly dignities and ho- 
nours : 

Offert multa, spondet plura, 

Periturus peritura. 

1 Thus with what graceful ease his hymn on the martyrdom 
of St. Catharine commences : 

Vox sonora nostri chori 
Nostro sonet Conditori, 
Qui disponit omnia ; 
Per quem dimicat imbellis, 
Per quem datur et puellis 
De viris victoria : 

Per quem plebs Alexandrina 
Fceminae non feeminina 
Stupuit ingenia ; 
Cum beata Catharina 
Doctos vinceret doctrina, 
Ferrum patientia. 

Florem teneri decoris 
Lectionis et laboris 
Attrivere studia : 

Nam perlegit disciplinas 
Sosculares et divinas 
In adolescentia. 

Vas electum, vas virtutum, 
Reputavit sicut lutum 
Bona transitoria : 
Et reduxit in contemptum 
Patris opes, et parentum 
Larga patrimonia. 

Vasis oleum includens, 
Virgo sapiens et prudens, 
Sponso pergit obvia ; 
Ut adventus ejus hora 
Prasparata sine mora 
Intret ad convivia. 


siderable, some of the very highest, merit. Indeed were 
I disposed to name any one who might dispute the palm 
of sacred Latin poetry with him, it would not be one of 
these, but rather Hildebert, Archbishop of Tours. 

Some may consider that I have set the merits of Adam 
of St. Victor too high ; yet fresh from the perusal of his 
hymn on St. Stephen, or his longer one on the Resurrec- 
tion, or those on Pentecost, they will certainly wonder at 
the taste and judgement of his countrymen, who could 
apportion him no higher praise than the following : A 
Tegard du merite de ses pieces, ce serait outrer 1'admira- 
tion que d'adopter sans reserve les eloges qu'on leur a 
donne's. Elles etaient bonnes pour le temps, et meme 
les meilleures qu'on eut vues jusqu'alors. Mais il a paru 
depuis des modeles en ce genre, qui les ont fait totale- 
ment oublier, et avec lesquelles elles ne peuvent reelle- 
ment entrer en comparaison (Hist. Liit. de la France, vol. 
xv. p. 41). Over against this I will set another and a 
fairer estimate of the merits of his hymns, the writer, 
probably John of Toulouse (he died in 1659, and was 
himself Prior of St. Victor), seizing, as it seems to me, 
very happily the character at once learned and ornate, 
the ' decorated ; style, which is so characteristic of many 
of them : Valde multas prosas fecit . . . quae succincte 
et clausulatim progredientes, venusto verborum matri- 
monio subtiliter decoratae, sententiarum flosculis mira- 
biliter picturatae, schemate congruentissimo componuntur, 
in quibus et cum interserat prophetias et figuras, quae in 
sensu quem praetendunt videantur obscurissimae, tamen 
sic eas adaptat ad suum propositum manifeste, ut magis 
videantur historiam texere quam figuram (Martene, T/ies. 
Anecdot. vol. vi. p. 222). Rambach calls him, I know 


not whether very felicitously, ' the Schiller of the middle 
ages \ ' Dom Gueranger, ' le plus grand poete du moyen 

Several of the hymns of Adam of St. Victor had got 
abroad, and were in use at a very early date, probably 
during the author's life : but till very lately we were 
mainly indebted to Clichtoveus, a Roman Catholic theo- 
logian of the first half of the sixteenth century, for what 
larger acquaintance with them we could obtain. Among 
numerous other works which he published was the Eluci- 
datorium Ecclesiasticum, Paris, 15 15 ; Basle, 1517, 15 19; 
Paris, 1540, 1556 (the best edition, and much richer in 
hymns than any which went before it) ; Cologne, 1732, 
and, in an abridged form, Venice, 1555 : written for the 
instruction of the parochial clergy in the meaning of the 
various offices of the Church. The book, which is rather 
scarce, was till very lately of absolute necessity for the 
student of the Christian hymnology, above all for the 
student of Adam of St. Victor's hymns. Besides contain- 
ing grains of gold to be washed from the sands of a diffuse 
exposition, it was long a principal source of the text, and 
had highest authority therein ; Clichtoveus having drawn 
it, as he himself assures us, from copies of the hymns 
preserved in the archives of St. Victor itself. Recent 
discoveries, however, have much diminished the import- 
ance of this work. Till very recently it had been taken 
for granted that Clichtoveus had published all the hymns 
of Adam which were in existence in his time, all therefore 
which could be in existence in ours ; nor, though it was 
well known that such of the manuscript treasures of the 
Abbey of St. Victor as had escaped the Revolution were 
deposited in the National Library in Paris, did any one 


think it worth his while to make researches there, and 
prove whether this was indeed the case. At length, how- 
ever, the suspicions of M. Gautier were aroused, mainly 
by observing that, while we possessed hymns of his in 
honour of some of the obscurest saints, some of the 
mightiest events of the Christian Year, Christmas for ex- 
ample, were altogether uncelebrated in them ; and he 
resolved to make proof whether other hymns, which he 
was sure must once have existed, might not still be dis- 
covered. The search which he instituted was abundantly 
rewarded \ and he has been able to publish an edition of 
the poetical works of Adam of St. Victor ( CEuvres Poc- 
tiques (TAdam de S. Victor, Paris, 1858, 1859), containing 
one hundred and six hymns, or sixty-nine more than 
were hitherto ascribed to him. It is true indeed that all 
of these were not unknown before ; some were going 
about the world, but without attribution to their true 
author. Far the larger portion, however, were thus for 
the first time drawn from their hiding-place of centuries, 
and of these not a few worthy to take rank with the 
noblest compositions of Adam himself, or of any other 
among the foremost hymnologists of the medieval 
Church. I have enriched the later editions of my book 
with several of these, the beauty and grandeur of which 
will be acknowledged by all competent judges. 



JUCUNDARE, plebs fidelis, 
Cujus Pater est in oelis, 
Recolens Ezechielis 
Prophetae praeconia : 

Est Joannes testis ipsi, 5 

Dicens in Apocalypsi, 
Vere vidi, vere scripsi 
Vera testimonia. 

Circa thronum majestatis, 

Cum spiritibus beatis, 10 

Quatuor diversitatis 

Astant animalia. 

Formam primum aquilinam, 

Et secundum leoninam, 

Sed humanam et bovinam 15 

Duo 2;erunt alia. 

I. Clichtoveus, Elucidat. Eccles. vol. ii. p. 2l8; Sequentice de 
Tempore, Argentinae, 1516, p. 21 ; Corner, Promptucirium De- 
1'otionis, Viennae, 1672, p. 346 ; Daniel, T/ies. Hymnol. vol. ii. 
p. 84 ; Gautier, Adam de S. Victor, vol. ii. p. 425. 

5. testis ipsi] Cf. Rev. iv. 6 — 8 with Ezek. i. 4—28 ; x. 9 — 

6 — 8. Cf. Rev. xxi. 5 ; xxii. 6. 

12. animalia'] The (wa of Rev. iv. 6—9; v. 6, 8, 14; are 
in our Version 'beasts;' — ' living creatures ' it should have been, 
as animalia in the Vulgate ; and ' beast ' should have been re- 
served for the 6-npioj/ of the 13U1 and later chapters. The dis- 


Formae formant ngurarum 

Formas Evangelistarum, 

Quorum imber doctrinarum 

Stillat in Ecclesia : 20 

Hi sunt Marcus et Matthaeus, 

Lucas, et quem Zebedaeus 

Pater tibi misit, Deus, 

Dum laxaret retia. 

tribution made in this hymn of these four to the four Evangelists 
is St. Jerome's, (Comm. in Ezck. c. I ; Prbl. in Matt. ; Ep. 50), 
is that of St. Ambrose (Prol. in Luc. §§ 7, 8), of Gregorythe Great 
(Hom. 4 in Ezck. ; Mor. xxxi. 47), and through his influence 
became the prevailing though not the exclusive one (for Bede 
has another), during the middle ages. In earlier times there 
was much fluctuation in the application of the four to the four ; 
and, strangely enough, even the eagle was not ahvays attributed 
to St. John : Irenasus, the first who makes the application at all, 
giving the lion to him, and the eagle to St. Mark (Con. H<er. 
iii. 2. 8) ; his other two are as in this hymn ; and so Juvencus. 
Athanasius (Opp. vol. ii. p. 155) shifts them in another fashion. 
Leaving St. Matthew untouched, he gives the calf to St. Mark, 
the lion to St. Luke, and the eagle to St. John. Augustine [De 
Cons. Evang. 1. 7, cf. in Joan. Tract. 6), whom Bede follows, 
makes yet another transposition. With him the lion belongs to 
St. Matthew, the man to St. Mark, the calf and eagle respectively 
to St. Luke and St. John. One might be tempted by these varia- 
tions to dismiss the whole matter as an idle play of the fancy ; 
and yet there was more than this, and indeed a deep insight into 
the nature of the Gospels, in the desire which thus manifested 
itself of claiming for them to be at once four and one, an evayye\iov 
r€Tpd/j.op(pov (Irenaeus), rerpayoivov (Origen), setting forth, in four 
cardinal aspects, the inexhaustible fulness of the life of Christ. 
The subject in its artistic aspect is fully treated by Mrs. Jameson, 
Poct?'v of Sacrcd and Lcgcndary A?'t y vol. i. pp. 98 — IIO. 



Formam viri dant Matthaeo, 25 

Quia scripsit sic de Deo, 

Sicut descendit ab eo, 

Quem plasmavit, homine. 

Lucas bos est in figura, 

Ut praemonstrat in Scriptura, 30 

Hostiarum tangens jura 

Legis sub velamine. 

Marcus leo per desertum 

Clamans, rugit in apertum, 

Iter fiat Deo certum, 35 

Mundum cor a crimine. 

Sed Joannes, ala bina 

Caritatis, aquilina 

Forma, fertur in divina 

Puriori lumine. 40 

Ecce forma bestialis, 

Quam scriptura prophetalis 

Notat; sed materialis 

Hsec est impositio. 

Currunt rotis, volant alis ; 45 

Inest sensus spiritalis ; 

25 — 28. Mat. i. 1— 16. 

29 — 32. For explanations of these lines see ver. 37 — 42 in the 
next hymn. 

37. ald bina\ The love of God, and of our neighbour. Thus 
H. de S. Victore (Serm. 97) : Columba sancta Ecclesia est : quae 
duas alas habet per dilectionem Dei et proximi, a dextris dilec- 
tionem Dei, a sinistris dilectionem proximi. 

45 — 48. currunt...volant\ Wheels run on earth, vdngs soar to 
lieaven. In these symbolic representations of the Evangelists 
we hear of both ; for they now tell of the eartJily life of the 


Rota gressus est sequalis, 
Ala contemplatio. 

Quatuor describunt isti 

Quadriformes actus Christi, 50 

Et figurant, ut audisti, 

Quisque sua formula. 

Natus homo declaratur, 

Vitulus sacrificatur, 

Leo mortem depraedatur, 55 

Et ascendit aquila. 

Paradisus his rigatur, 

Viret, floret, fcecundatur, 

His abundat, his laetatur 

Quatuor fluminibus : 6Q 

Fons est Christus, hi sunt rivi, 

Fons est altus, hi proclivi, 

Ut saporem fontis vivi 

Ministrent ndelibus. 

Saviour (curruni rotis) ; they now aseend to the contemplation 
of the heavenly world (volant alis). The gresstcs ceqnalis is the 
mutual consent of the four ; they keep step. But the allusions 
to the medieval typology in this and the next following hymns 
are so infinite and complex, that I should exhaust my room long 
before I had exhausted them. I must be content but to touch 
on a few, only observing that the key to a multitude of them 
lies in Gregoiy the Great's Homilies on Ezekiel (Opp. vol. i. p. 
1183, sqq. Bened. ed.). 

49 1 5°- Clichtoveus : Scilicet Matthaeus Xativitatem, Lucas Pas- 
sionem, Marcus Resurrectionem, et Johannes Ascensionem Christi. 

57 — 64. Irenaeus, in his famous passage (iii. II. 8), the foun- 

dation of so much which has followed in the same line, does not 

refer to the our streams of Paradise, as prefiguring the four 

Evangelists, near as such an application lay to him, and likening 

F 2 


Horum rivo debriatis C5 

Sitis crescat caritatis, 

Ut de fonte pietatis 

Satiemur plenius. 

Horum trahat nos doctrina 

Vitiorum de sentina, 70 

Sicque ducat ad divina 

Ab imo superius. 

as he does the four to the four principal winds, iravrax69ep 
Trvtovras rtjv acpdapcrlav, Kal avafairvpovvras rovs avOpc&irovs. Nor 
■does St. Ambrose (De Paradiso, c. 3), though finding a mystical 
meaning in the four streams, find this one. We meet it in Jerome 
(Ep. ad Euseb.) : Quemadmodum unus fluvius erat Paradisi, qui 
in quatuor capita dividitur ; ita unica Christi evangelica doctrina 
per quatuor ministros ad irrigandum et foecundandum ecclesias 
hortum est distributa ; cf. Prol. in Matt. ; Augustine, Dc Civ. Dei, 
xiii. 21, and Durandus, Rational. vii. 46. The image has passed 
into the region of Christian Art (Aringhi, vol. i. pp. 181, 183, 
195), where we often find in the early mosaics a hill surmounted 
by a cross, or by a lamb holding a cross, and four streams flowing 
■out in several ways from its sides ; in the words of Paulinus of Nola : 
Petram superstat Ipse, petra ecclesiae, 
De qua sonori quatuor fontes meant, 
Evangelistae, viva Christi flumina : 

or, as we may express the thought in an English quatrain : 
As those four streams that had in Eden birth, 
And did the whole world water, four ways going, — 
With spiritual freshness fill our thirsty earth 
Four streams of grace from one cleft mountain flowing. 

Sometimes, as in the magnificent mosaic filling the cupola of St. 
Mark's, at Venice, the Evangelists appear as four aged men, 
•each with his urn, from which a stream of water flows. 

65. debriatis] In some editions ebrietatis ; but thus, plainly 
in ignorance of there being such a word as debrio. It is a medieral 
form of inebrio (see Du Cange, s. v. ) ; I find it as early as Gregory 
the Great (Hom. 6. in Ezek.). 



PSALLAT chorus corde mundo, 
Hos attollat, per quos mundo 
Sonant Evangelia \ 
Voce quorum salus fluxit, 
Nox recessit, et illuxit 5 

Sol illustrans omnia. 

Curam agens sui gregis 

Pastor bonus, auctor legis, 

Quatuor instituit, 

Quadri orbis ad medelam; 10 

Formam juris et cautelam 

Per quos scribi voluit. 

II. Clichtoveus, Elucidat. Eccles. vol. ii. p. 221 ; Daniel, Thes. 
Hymnol. vol. ii. p. &> ; Mone, Hyrrui. Lai. Med. s£vi, vol. iii. 
p. 130; Gautier, Adam de S. Victor, vol. ii. p. 417. 

I. This first line Gautier reads : 

Plausu chorus laetabundo. 

9, 10. Augustine (De Cons. Evang. i. 2) : Quatuor Evange- 
listee, ...ob hoc fortasse quatuor, quoniam quatuor sunt partes orbis 
teme, per cujus universitatem Christi Ecclesiam dilatari ipso sui 
numeri sacramento quodammodo declararunt. 

II. cautelani\ A juristic word. Du Cange explains it perfectly : 
Cautclcc sunt instrumenta et chartoe, quibus privilegia, jura, pos- 
sessiones, etc. , asseruntur ; hinc cautelcz dicta, quod sint veluti 
cautio (aa-(pd\i(Tfjia) res illas ita se habere. 


Circa thema generale 

Habet quisque speciale 

Stili privilegium ; 1 5 

Quod praesignat in propheta 

Forma pictus sub discreta 

Vultus animalium. 

Supra caelos dum conscendit, 

Summi Patris comprehendit 20 

Natum ante secula ; 

Pellens nubem nostrse molis, 

Intuetur jubar solis 

Joannes in aquila. 

Est leonis rugientis 25 

Marco vultus, resurgentis 

Quo claret potentia : 

Voce Patris excitatus 

Surgit Christus, laureatus 

Immortali gloria. 30 

Os humanum est Matthsei, 

In humana forma Dei 

Dictantis prosapiam: 

Cujus genus sic contexit, 

Quod a stirpe David exit 35 

Per carnis materiam. 

25. rugientis] The legend, frequent in the middle ages, and 
indeed already alluded to by Origen [Hom. xvii. in Gen. xlix. 9), 
that the lion's whelps were born dead, and first roused to life on 
the third day by the roar of their sire, was often contemplated as a 
natural type of the resurrection : so is it here. The subject will 
recur in a note on Adam of St. Victor's Resurrection hymn, Zyma 
vetus exptrgetur, later in this volume. 


Rictus bovis Lucse datur 

In qua forma nguratur 

Nova Christus hostia : 

Ara crucis mansuetus 40 

Hic mactatur, sicque vetus 

Transit observantia. 

Paradisi hsec fluenta 

Nova pluunt sacramenta, 

Quae descendunt caelitus. 45 

His quadrigis deportatur 

37. Rictus] So Daniel, Mone, and Gautier ; but Clichtoveus 
Ritus, for which there is something to be said. 

40. Ard crucis\ Elsewhere he has a beautiful stanza on the cross 
as the altar on which Christ was offered : 

Oh, quam felix, quam praeclara Agni sine macula, 

Fuit haec salutis ara, Qui mundavit saecula 

Rubens Agni sanguine, Ab antiquo crimine ! 

46. His quadrigis] Clichtoveus sees here, but wrongly, an allusion 
o Zech. vi. : Zacharias vidisse ipse dicit in spiritu quatuor quadrigas 
egredientes de medio duorum montium, et equos in eis varios, 
quibus jussum est ut totam terram perambularent : Hae autem 
quadrigae figura sunt sanctorum quatuor Evangelistarum, quibus Dei 
cognitio per universum orbem defertur et promulgatur. The traces 
are veiy slight among the Fathers of any such application of Zecha- 
riah's vision of the four chariots: St. Jerome (in loc.) giving a 
whole series of mystical interpretations of these, does not give this ; 
while elsewhere he makes abundantly plain that the poet is still 
drawing his imagery from that grand vision of Ezekiel (Ep. 50) : 
Matthseus, Marcus, Lucas, et Johannes, quadriga Domini et verum 
Cherubim, per totum corpus oculati sunt, scintillae emicant, discur- 
runt fulgura, pedes habent rectos et in sublime tendentes, terga 
pennata et ubique volitantia. Tenent se mutuo, sibique perplex 
sunt, et quasi rota in rota volvuntur, et pergunt quoquumque eos 


Mundo Deus, sublimatur 
Istis arca vectibus. 

Non est domus ruitura 

Hac subnixa quadratura, 50 

Haec est domus Domini : 

Gloriemur in hac domo, 

Qua beate vivit homo 

Deo junctus Homini. 

flatus S. Spiritus perduxerit. Cf. Augustine, De Cons. Evang. i. 7 ; 
and Durandus, RationaU, vii. 46, who indeed suggests quite another 
allusion, namely to Cant. v. II. 

48. vectibus] Cf. Exod. xxv. 13 — 15. The vectes, of shittim- 
wood overlaid with gold, were the staves which lifted the ark from 
the ground. They passed through the four golden rings at its four 
corners ; and, though being only in fact tzi'o } had four extremities. 
Sometimes these, but oftener the four golden rings through which 
they pass, are made symbolic of the four Evangelists. Thus Hugh 
of St. Victor : Quatuor annuli, qui arcce inhaerent, quatuor sunt 
Evangeliorum libri. Clichtoveus unites both : Per hos autem qua- 
tuor circulos et vectes illis insertos, quibus deferebatur arca, intelli- 
guntur Evangelistoe, quorum narratione Christus, arca mystica et 
spiritualis, in omnem mundi partem, quantum ad sui notitiam, est 

50. quadraturd] The allusion is to Rev. xxi. 16. The house 
stands firm which rests on a foursquare foundation : in this shape 
is the greatest strength and stability of all ; thus see the symbolic use 
of the \i60s TeTpdyccuos in the Tabula of Cebes, c. 18. Even so the 
fourfold history of the Lord's life, the €i>ayye\iov TCTnaycavov, is the 
strong foundation on which the faith of the Church reposes. Thus 
Durandus (Rational. vii. 46): Sicut enim inter cceteras formas qua- 
dratum, sic inter creteras doctrinas Evangelium solidius et stabilius 
perseverat ; nam illud undique stat, et ideo legitur (Apocal. c. 21 ) 
quod civitas in quadro posita est. 



VERBI vere substantivi, 
Caro cum sit in declivi 
Temporis angustia, 
In seternis verbum annis 
Permanere nos Johannis 5 

Docet theologia. 

Dum Magistri super pectus 

Fontem haurit intellectus, 

Et doctrinae flumina, 

Fiunt, ipso situ loci, -0 

Verbo fides, auris voci, 

Mens Deo contermina. 

Unde mentis per excessus, 
Carnis, sensus super gressus, 

III. Gautier, Adam dc S. Victor, vol. i. p. 241. This grand 
poem, a noble addition to our Latin hymnology, was by him pub- 
lished for the first time. 

1 — 6. I understand the poet to say : The theology of John teaches 
us that while the flesh (that is, all which is in the world and of the 
world), declines, wastes, and decays (see I John ii. 16, 17 ; John 
xii. 48), the word of the Word {verbum Verbi), all which Christ 
utters, endures for everlasting years, shall never pass away. 
' 13. mentis per excessus]. Cf. Rev. i. 10, 19—48. The poet 


Errorumque nubila, 15 

Contra veri solis lumen 
Visum cordis et acumen 
Figit velut aquila. 

Verbum quod non potest dici, 

Quod virtute creatrici 20 

Cuncta fecit valde bona, 

Iste dicit ab seterni 

Patris nexu non secerni 

Nisi tantum in persona. 

Quem Matthaeus de intactae 25 

Matris alit casto lacte 

Cum labore et aerumna, 

Quem exaltat super cruce 

Cornu bovis, penna Lucae, 

Ut serpentem in columna; 30 

Quem de mortis mausoleo 
Vitae reddit Marci leo, 
Scissis petris, terra mota, 
Hunc de Deo Deum verum, 

urges that the theology, properly so called, belongs to St. John. 
The other Evangelists set forth Chrisfs earthly ministry of labour 
and toil and passion ; St. John rather the relation of Him, the 
creative Word, to the Father (John i. 3 ; Gen. i. 1), andhis return, 
at the end of time, cum ultrici framed (ver. 4S) — these last words 
containing an allusion to that sublimest of all visions, Rev. xix. 
II— 16. 

19. Best explained by a reference to Rev. xix. 12 ; Gen. xxxii. 
29 ; Judg. xiii. 17, 18. 


Alpha et £2, patrem rerum 35 

Solers scribit idiota. 

Cujus lumen visuale, 

Vultus anceps, leves alae, 

Rotae stantes in quadriga, 

Sunt in caelo visa, prius 40 

Quam hic esset vel illius 

Forma capax, vel auriga. 

Illi scribunt Christum pati 

Dolum, inde vim Pilati, 

Cum corona spinea. 45 

Hic sublimis tractu pennae 

Tractat Christi jus perenne 

Cum ultrici framea. 

36. idiota] A reference to Acts iv. 15, where Peter and John 
are described as homines sine litteris et idiote (Vulg.). 

37 — 42. A difficult stanza. Gautier, who is prodigal of un- 
needed help, gives no word of assistance here. The flrst three lines 
contain no serious difficulty, none at least which an accurate com- 
parison of Ezekiel, chap. i. and x. will not remove. Thus we can 
explain lumen visuale by aid of Ezek. i. 18; x. 12 (Macarius call- 
ing the living creatures of the prophet 6\o<p9d\[j.a £aia) ; the vultus 
anceps by Ezek. i. 6, 10 ; the leves alce by i. 6, 9 ; and the rotce 
stanteshy 1.2.1. But what is exactly the force of the last three 
lines is harder to say. I take Adam to mean that St. John's eagle 
glance {lumen visuale), with all else ascribed to him here, was 
seen in heaven, anticipated in EzekiePs vision, before John him- 
self, or his Lord, the charioteer (aicriga) of that wondrous chariot 
which John, with the other 'living creatures,' upbore, took 
form and shape on earth. But I am not satisfied with this expla- 



Pennis hujus idiotae 

Elevantur Regis rotee, 

Secus animalia ; 

Et caelestes citharcedi 

Se prosternunt Patris sedi 

Canentes, Alleluia. 


49, 5°« Cf. Ezek. i. 19 : Cumque ambularent animalia, ambula- 
bant pariter et rotae juxta ea, et cum elevarentur animalia de terra, 
elevabantur simul et rotce (Vulg.). 

52—54. Cf. Rev. v. 8, 9. 

A very fine hymn on the Four Evangelists, published for the first 
time, as far as I am aware, by Dr. Neale, and since in the MissdU 
de Arbuthnotty 1S64, p. 405, yields the following noble stanzas, 
which may be fitly brought into comparison here : 

Illos per bis bina 
Visio divina 
Signat animalia ; 
A quibusdam visa, 
Formis tunc divisa, 
Gestu sed cequalia. 

Pennis decorata, 
Terris elevata, 
Cum rotis euntia ; 
Facie serena, 
Oculorum plena, 
Verbi Dei nuntia. 

In his possunt cerni 
Annuli quaterni 
Quibus arca vehitur ; 

Quorum dogma sanum 
Per Samaritanum 
Circumquaque seritur. 

Tali quasi plaustro 
Mulier ab Austro 
Salomonem adiit, 
In hac ceu quadriga 
Agnus est auriga, 
Qui pro nobis obiit. 

Istis in bis binis 
Caput est et finis 
Christus complens omnia : 
Horum documentis, 
Honim instrumentis 
Florens stat Ecclesia. 



VERBUM Dei, Deo natum, 
Quod nec factum, nec creatum, 
Venit de caelestibus, 
Hoc vidit, hoc attrectavit, 
Hoc de caelo reseravit 
Joannes hominibus. 

Inter illos primitivos 
Veros veri fontis rivos 

IV. SequentuE de Tempore, Argentince, 15 16, p. 2 ; Clichtoveus, 
Elucidat. Eccles. Paris, 1556, p. 213 (not in earlier editions) ; 
Rambach, Anthol. Christl. Gcsiinge, Altona u. Leipzig, 181 7, p. 
340 ; Daniel, Thes. Hymn. vol. ii. p. 166 ; Mone, Hymni Lat. 
Med. sEvi, vol. iii. p. 118. — This sublime hymn, though not Adam 
of St. Victor's, proceeds from one formed in his school, and on his 
model, and is altogether worthy of him. It is, indeed, to my mind 
grander than his own, which has just preceded it. Daniel ascribes 
it to the thirteenth or fourteenth century, but has nothing certain 
to say about its authorship. 
4 — 6. Cf. I Joh. i. 1. 

6. It is seldom that we meet in Christian sapphics so fine a stanza 
as this, which occurs in a hymn of Damiani's to St. John ; and 
which may here be brought into comparison : 

Fonte prommpens fluvius perenni 
Curris, arentis satiator orbis ; 
Hausit ex pleno modo quod propinat. 
Pectore pectus. 

7 — 9. See note on no. I. 57 — 64. 


Joannes exsiliit ; 

Toti mundo propinare 10 

Nectar illud salutare, 

Quod de throno prodiit. 

Cselum transit, veri rotam 

Solis vidit, ibi totam 

Mentis figens aciem; 15 

Speculator spiritalis, 

Quasi Seraphim sub alis 

Dei vidit faciem. 

12. de thrond\ Cf. Rev. xxii. i. 

13. Ctzlum transit] Ambrose (Prol/ in Exp. in Luc. c. 3): 
Nemo enim, audeo dicere, tanta sublimitate sapientiae majestatem 
Dei vidit, et nobis proprio sermone reseravit. Transcendit nubes, 
transcendit virtutes cselorum, transcendit angelos, et Verbttm in 
principio reperit, et Verbum apid Deum vidit. 

15. figens aciem] Augustine (In yoh. Tract. 36): Aquila ipse est 
Johannes, sublimium pnedicator, et lucis internse atque aetemae fixis 
oculis contemplator. Dicuntur enim et pulli aquilarum a parentibus 
sic probari, patris scilicet ungue suspendi, et radiis solis opponi ; 
qui firme contemplatus fuerit, filius agnoscitur ; si acie palpitaverit, 
tanquam adulterinus ab ungue dimittitur. 

17, 18. These verses can only be fully understood by reference to 
Isai. vi. 2 (Vulg.), where 'with twain he covered his face,' i.e. the 
seraphim with two wings covered their (own) face, (faciem sua?n, as 
it should have been), is given : Duabus velabant faciem ejus, i.e. 
Domini. This was referred to the obscure vision of God vouchsafed 
under the Old Covenant, so that even prophets saw but 81' io-oTrrpov, 
4v curlyfiari : the wings of the seraphim being as a veil between 
God and them. Thus H. de S. Victore (De Arca Mor. i. 3) : Quod 
autem in Esaia scriptum est, Velabant faciem ejus, eo modo intelligi 
debet, quo dictum est ad Moysem : Non poteris videre faciem 
meam : non enim videbit me homo, et vivet. But St. John, the 
poet would say, looking beneath these covering wings (scraphim snh 
alis) saw the unveiled glory of God. A passage in St. Bernard 


Audiit in gyro sedis 

Quid psallant cum citharoedis 20 

Quater seni proceres : 

De sigillo Trinitatis 

Nostrae nummo civitatis 

Impressit characteres. 

Volat avis sine meta 25 

Quo nec vates nec propheta 

Evolavit altius : 

Tam implenda, quam impleta, 

Nunquam vidit tot secreta 

Purus homo purius. 30 

Sponsus rubra veste tectus, 
Visus, sed non intellectus, 
Redit ad palatium : 
Aquilam Ezechielis 

{Opp. 1, 955, Bened. ed.) shews that even in the middle ages they 
were aware siiam would have been a more accurate translation. 

23 — 25. The three lines immediately preceding these are a mag- 
nificent poetical reproduction of Rev. iv. 4. If we cast our eyes a 
little forward we have at ver. 8 the ' Holy, Holy, Holy, ' of the 
ever-blessed Trinity, which St. John, having heard in heaven, 
brought down to earth, and ' stamped on the money of our city/ so 
that everywhere in this City of God the confession of it passes from 
mouth to mouth, and from heart to heart. 

25 — 30. Volat avis] Olshausen has taken this stanza, than which 
sacred Latin poetry does not possess a grander, as the motto of his 
Commentary on St. John. The implenda are the Apocalypse, the 
impleta the Gospel. 

31. rubrd veste\ Cf. Isai. lxiii. I — 3; Rev. xix. 11. 

32. non intellectzis'] Cf. Isai. liii. 2 — 4 ; John xii. 37 — 41. 
34. Aqitilam Ezeckielis] Cf. Ezek. i. 10 ; Rev. iv. 7. 


Sponsae misit, quae de cselis 35 

Referret mysterium. 

Dic, dilecte, de Dilecto, 
Qualis sit et ex Dilecto 
Sponsus sponsae nuncia: 
Dic quis cibus angelorum, 40 

38, 39. Clichtoveus reads : 

Qualis adsit, et de lecto 
Sponsi sponsre nuncia. 

It is a much easier reading and yields a tolerable sense, the medieval 
mystics having much to say on this lectus Domi/ii, the deep rest of 
perfected souls in innermost communion with their Lord. Daniel 
and Mone however as above, the former urging that all the German 
MSS. so read ; but still more decisive is the fact which neither he 
nor Mone seem aware of, nor was I, when I made a difficulty about 
this reading, namely, that there is a manifest allusion here to Cant. 
v. 9 (Vulg. ) : Qualis est dilectus tuus, o pulcherrima mulierum, ex 
dilecto ? qualis est dilectus tuus ex dilecto ? What cx dilecto here 
was supposed in medieval interpretation to mean, the comment of 
Gillebert, who completed St. BernaixTs great work on the Canticles, 
sufficiently shews : Ista fides te mundat, ista venustat, qua Dilec- 
tum tuum Dilecto, ex quo est, aequalem defendis. "VVe see then that 
the words dilectus ex dilecto ( = 0eos hc 6eov) express the substantial 
unity of the Father and the Son ; and the Evangelist, himself 
beloved (John xiii. 23 ; xxi. 20), is bidden here to report concern- 
ing theBeloved, and to announce to the Bride what the Bridegroom 
is, even God of God, Beloved of [or from] the Beloved. 

40. cibus angriorum~\ Allusion to the Incarnation was often 
found in the words of the Psalmist (lxxviii. 25), ' Man did eat 
angels' food.' The Eternal Word, from the beginning the food of 
angels, in the Incamation became also the food of men. Thus 
Augustine (In Ep. Joh. Tract. 1) : Erat enim [Vita] ab initio ; 
sed non erat manifestata hominibus ; rnanifestata autem erat angelis 
videntibus, et tanquam pane suo cibantibus. Sed quid ait Scrip- 


Quae sint festa superorum 
De Sponsi praesentia. 

Veri panem intellectus, 

Coenam Christi super pectus 

Christi sumptam resera : 45 

Ut cantemus de Patrono, 

Coram Agno, coram throno, 

Laudes super aethera. 

tura ? Panem angelorum manducavit homo. Ergo manifestata est 

ipsa Vita in carne. So too Hildebert : 

Quam felix Panis, caro felix, hostia dives, 
In terris homines, qui pascit in aethere cives. 

And Damiani yields a fine stanza here : 

En illa felix aquila Quae caeli cives vegetat, 

Ad escam volat avida, Et nos in via recreat. 

44, 45. That he who in the Greek Church was named iirLo~T7)dios, 
drew from his greater nearness to that bosom (John xiii. 23) the 
deeper depths of his wisdom, has been often urged. Thus, to 
rescue the best lines from a poem otherwise of no eminent merit : 
His, cujus alae virtutum scalae, Praeminens scientiae, 

Hora ccenae hausit plene Figens visum non elisum 

Meae fontem gratiae ; In me, Solem gloriae. 

Ales alis spiritalis 

46. Patrond\ Led away by this word, Clichtoveus will have it, 
that the end to which the enraptured poet aspires is, that he may 
sing the praises of St. John before the throne and the Lamb ! A 
"reference to Rev. v. 9 should have taught him better. That 
Patronus may be used of a divine Person the following quotation 
makes abundantly plain {Hy??i?i. de Te??ip. Argent. p. 25) : 

Praesta, Pater et Patrone, 
Praesta, Fili, Pastor bone, 
Praesta, Spiritus amborum, 
Medicinam peccatorum. 



STRIXGERE pauca libet bona carminis hujus, et 

Laude vel exili magnincare libet. 
Hic ea triticea est pannisque allata farina 

Hebraeo populo de Pharaonis humo. 
Hic illud missum de caelo manna saporum, 5 

Omnem gustanti qui sapit ore cibum : 
Ut brevius curram per singula ; prseminet auro 

In pretio ; soli luce ; sapore favo. 
Hic facit humano generi quod sol facit orbi ; 

Sol terrae lucet ; luce cor ipse replet. 10 

Fons est hortorum, puteus vel abyssus aquarum, 

Quarum potus alit pectora, corda rigat 

V. Leyser, Hist. Poett. Med. s£vi, p. 748. — It is the Aurora^ a 
nietrical version of Scriptnre, which the anonymous author of this 
poem has immediately in his eye. This must explain the carminis 
in the first line. He passes, however, at once from it to the praise 
of Scripture itself. 

3, 4. Cf. Exod. xii. 34. 

5, 6. The Jewish legend, that the manna tasted to every man 
like that which he liked the best, is well known (Wisd. xvi. 21). 
Even such heavenly manna, meeting every man's desires, is Scrip- 
ture. Gregory the Great (Mor. xxxi. 15): Manna quippe est ver- 
bum Dei, et quidquid bene voluntas suscipientis appetit, hoc 
profecto in ore comedentis sapit. 

S. Cf. Ps. xix. 11. 

11. Fons . . . putciis'] The words of Cant. iv. 15 (Vulg.) : Fons 
hortorum ; puteus aquarum viventium, quae rluunt impetu de 


Pascua caelestis, cellaria regia, caelum 

Tot signis fulgens quot sacramenta tegens. 

Hic calamus Scribae subito scribentis ; hic arcus, 15 
Qui curativo vulnere corda ferit. 

Hic rota sive rotae, quarum ut mare visio mira, 
In medioque rotae fertur inesse rota. 

Libano; were applied to Scripture, a fountain for its abundance, 
a well for its depth. Thus a mystical expositor of the Canticles 
(Bemardi Opp. vol. ii. p. 125) : Accipiamus in fonte sumcientiam 
doctrinse, in puteo secretum : in illo abundantiam, in isto alta 

13. cellaria regid\ Cf. Cant. i. 3 (Vulg.): Introduxit me rex 
in cellaria sua. For the sense in which Scripture is thus the king ? s 
cellar, see St. Bernard, In Cant. Serm. 23. 

15. The old exposition of Ps. xlv. 2, namely, that the Holy 
Spirit was ' the ready writer ' (see Basil the Great, Hom. in Ps. xliv.), 
and that the Psalmist would say his tongue did but utter, and his 
hand set down, that which was suggested by that Spirit, must ex- 
plain this line. The poet transfers to all Scripture what had been 
spoken of a single Psalm. — arcus] Gregory the Great, on the diffe- 
rent uses of ' bow ' in Scripture, observes (Mor. xix. 30) : Aliquando 
autem per arcum etiam Sacra Scriptura signatur. Ipsa quippe 
arcus est Ecclesiae, ipsa arcus est Domini, de qua ad corda homi- 
num, sicut ferientes sagittae, sic terrentes sententise veniunt. 

17. Hic rota sive rot<z~\ Cf. Ezek. i. 15, 16. At ver. 15, the 
prophet sees ( one wheel ;' apparuit rota una (Vulg.), while imme- 
diately in the next verse it is said, Et aspectus rotarum quasi visio 
maris. The wheel or wheels is Holy Scripture ; and the wheel 
within wheel, of which the same verse presently speaks (quasi sit 
rota in medio rotse), is the New Testament ; which is contained 
and shut up in the Old. Gregory the Great (Hom. 6 in Ezek. ) : 
Rota ergo in medio rotae est ; quia inest Testamento Veteri Testa- 
mentum Novum. Quod Testamentum Vetus promisit, hoc Novum 
exhibuit ; et quod illud occulte annunciat, hoc istud exhibitum 
aperte clamat. Prophetia ergo Testamenti Novi, Testamentum 
Vetus est ; et expositio Testamenti Veteris, Testamentum Novum. 

G 2 


Quatuor his facies, species est una : levantur, 

Stant, vel eunt, prout has Spiritus intro regit. 20 

Hic liber in dextra regnantis scriptus et intus 

Et foris ; intus habens mystica, plana foris. 
Hic Moysi facies, quae velo tecta, videri 

Non valet ; at Christi luce retecta patet. 
Per Moysen typico, per Christum sanguine vero 25 

Hic liber aspersus, remque typumque gerit. 
Lex nova, res ; antiqua, typus : diffusior illa, 

Hsec brevior : retegit ista, quod illa tegit. 

Cf. Anselm, Dial. Christ et Jud. iii. p. 539. — Quarum ut mare 
visio mird\ Et aspectus rotarum et opus earum, quasi visio maris 
(Ezek. i. 16, Vulg.) ; 011 which Gregory the Great : Recte sacra 
eloquia visioni maris similia narrantur, quia in eis magna sunt 
volumina sententiarum, cumuli sensuum. These words have nothing 
answering to them in our text, nor in the Hebrew. 

19. Quatuor . . . und\ Gregory the Great (ibid.): Rota qua- 
tuor facies habere describitur [Ezek. i. 15], quia Scriptura Sacra 
per utraque Testamenta in quatuor partibus est distincta. Vetus 
enim Testamentum in Lege et Prophetis, Novum vero in Evan- 
geliis atque Apostolorum Actibus et Dictis. Una similitudo ipsa- 
rum est quatuor (Ezek. i. 16), quia divina eloquia, etsi temporibus 
distincta, sunt tamen sensibus unita. 

21, 22. intus et foris] Richard of St. Victor {In Apoc. v. 1) : 
Liber qui in dextera Dei tenetur, est Sacra Scriptura. Intus 
scriptus est per spiritualem intelligentiam, foris per literam. Cf. 
Gregory the Great, Hom. 9 in Ezek. § 30. 

23, 24. Cf. Exod. xxxiv. 33 ; 2 Cor. iii. 13-16. 

25, 26. Cf. Exod. xxiv. 8; Heb. ix. 19. There is no mention 
in the former passage, but only in Hebrews, of a sprinkling of the 
book with blood. 

28. retegit] The lengthening of the last syllable of retegit on the 
strength of the two mor<z which must here be made, is another sign 
of accent penetrating into the domain of quantity, the later Latin 
poets, most of all the medieval, assuming the entirest liberty of 


Dumque rei testis typus exstat, abyssus abyssum 

Invocat. Utraque lex nomen abyssus habet. 30 

Sic brevitate libri geminae clauduntur abyssi ; 

Utraque magna nimis, nullus utramque capit. 
Jugiter hic legem meditari, inquirere, nosse, 

Quid nisi caelesti luce ciboque frui? 
Nil homini melius, quam si divina legendo 35 

Figat ibi vitam, quo sibi vita venit. 
Felix qui sitit haec, et eodem fonte saporem 

Attrahit, ut vitam condiat inde suam. 
Nam nisi sic sapiat, sapientem non puto, quando 

Nil sibi, quod didicit codice, corde sapit. 40 

Qui studet his, vel propter opes vel propter honores, 

Non sapit ; it prorsus a sapiente procul. 
Non nisi propter se vult se Sapientia quaeri ; 

Qui colit hanc, audi, quae metit inde bona. 
Purior affectus, sensus fit clarior, et mens 45 

Liberior mundo, carneque pressa minus. 
Lectio jugis alit virtutes, lucida reddit 

Intima, declinat noxia, vana fugat. 

making long a short syllable — even a short vowel — at this place, 
whenever it was convenient. They used the same freedom with the 
hexameter, where, when the caesura occurred immediately after the 
arsis in the third foot, the syllable on which the pause thus fell, 
was always, and on this ground alone, considered long. The reader 
coming on these short syllables thus made long should not regard 
them as neglects or ignorances, but as parts of a system ; one indeed 
not altogether strange to the poets of the best age of Rome ; see an 
Excursus in Conington's Virgi/, voL iii. p. 465, On the Lengthening 
of Short Final Syllables in Virgil. 



QT. AMBROSE, born about 340, and probably at 
w3 Treves, was intended by his father, who was Pre- 
fect of Gaul, for a secular career. He practised as an 
advocate at Milan ; and was already far advanced on 
the way to the highest honours and offices of the state, 
having been appointed about 370 Consular Prefect of 
Liguria, when it became plain that for him other and 
more lasting honours were in store. For, having won 
the affections alike of Catholics and Arians by the mild- 
ness and justice of his rule, on the death of Auxentius, 
Bishop of Milan, a.d. 374, he was chosen as by a sudden 
inspiration, and under circumstances which are too well 
known to need being repeated, his successor, being as 
yet only a layman and unbaptized. He died in 397. 

The hymns which are current under the name of 
Ambrosian are very numerous, yet are not all his ; the 
name having been freely given to as many as were 
formed after the model and pattern of those which he 
composed, and to some in every way unworthy of him. 
The Benedictine editors do not admit more than twelve 
as with any certainty of his composition : and even these 
some in later times have affirmed to be 'ascribed to 
him upon doubtful authority;' so the Dictionary of Greek 
and Roman Biography • although no evidence can well 


be stronger than that which in regard of some of them we 
possess. 1 

After being accustomed to the softer and richer strains 
of the later Christian poets, to the more ornamented 
style of a Bernard or an Adam of St. Victor — to the 
passionate sinking of himself in the great objects which 
he contemplates, that marks the first of these great 
poets of the Cross — to the harmonies long-drawn out 
and the abundant theological lore of the second, — it 
is some little while before one returns with a hearty con- 
sent and liking to the almost austere simplicity which 
characterizes the hymns of St. Ambrose. It is felt as 
though there were a certain coldness in them, an aloof- 
ness of the author from his subject, a refusal to blend and 
fuse himself with it. The absence too of rhyme, for 
which the almost uniform use of a metre, very far from 
the richest among the Latin lyric forms, and with sin- 
gularly few resources for producing variety of pause or 
cadence, seems a very insufficient compensation, adds to 
this feeling of disappointment. The ear and the heart 
seem alike to be without their due satisfaction. 

Only after a while does one learn to feel the grandeur 

1 This evidence is well brought together by Cardinal Thomasius 
in a preliminary discourse, Ad Lectoreni (unpaged), prefixed to the 
Hymnarium, in his Works (J. M. Thomasii, S. R. E., Carainalis, 
Opera Omnia, Romae, 1747, vol. ii. p. 351 — 434). This book, of 
rare occurrence in England, is important in fixing the text, especially 
of the earlier hymns. The CardinaPs position gave him access to 
the oldest Vatican and other Italian MSS., of all which he made 
diligent and careful use. Ex illo libro, says Daniel, tanquam fonte 
primario hauriendum est. For an estimate of St. Ambrose's merits 
in promoting the new Christian psalmody, see Rambach, Anthol. 
Christl. Gesdnge, vol. i. p. 58 — 60. 


of this unadorned metre, and the profound, though it 
may have been more instinctive than conscious, wisdom 
of the poet in choosing it ; or to appreciate that confi- 
dence in the surpassing interest of his theme, which has 
rendered him indirTerent to any but its simplest setting 
forth. It is as though, building an altar to the living 
God, he would observe the Levitical precept, and rear it 
of unhewn stones, upon which no tool had been lifted. 
The great objects of faith in their simplest expression 
are felt by him so sufficient to stir all the deepest affec- 
tions of the heart, that any attempt to dress them up, to 
array them in moving language, were merely superrluous. 
The passion is there, but it is latent and represt, a fire 
burning inwardly, the glow of an austere enthusiasm, 
which reveals itself indeed, but not to every careless 
beholder. Nor do we fail presently to observe how truly 
these poems belonged to their time and to the circum- 
stances under which they were produced — how suitably 
the faith which was in actual conrlict with, and was just 
triumphing over, the powers of this world, found its utter- 
ance in hymns such as these, wherein is no softness, per- 
haps little tenderness ; but in place of these a rock-like 
firmness, the old Roman stoicism transmuted and glori- 
fied into that nobler Christian courage, which encountered 
and at len^th overcame the world. 



VENI, Redemptor gentium, 
Ostende partum Virginis ; 
Miretur omne sseculum : 
Talis decet partus Deum. 

Non ex virili semine, 5 

Sed mystico * spiramine, 
Verbum Dei factum est caro, 
Fructusque ventris floruit. 

Alvus tumescit Virginis, 

Claustrum pudoris permanet, 10 

Vexilla virtutum micant, 

Versatur in templo Deus. 

VI. S. A?nbrosii Opp. Paris, 1836, vol. iv. p. 201 ; Card. 
Thomasii Opp. Romae, 1747, vol. ii. p. 351 ; Mone, Hymn. lat. 
Med. JEvi, vol. i. p. 42. The German hymn-book is indebted 
to this immortal hymn of St. Ambrose for one of its choicest 
treasures — I mean John Frank's Advent hymn, commencing : 

Komm, Heidenheiland, Losegeld, 
Komm, schonste Sonne dieser Welt, 
Lass abwarts flammen deinen Schein, 
Denn so will Gott geboren sein. 

It is not a translation, but a free recomposition of the original, 
beside which it is wellnigh worthy to stand, even though we may 
not count it, as Bunsen does, noch tiefer und lieblicher als das 


Procedit e thalamo suo, 

Pudoris aula regia, 

Geminae gigas substantiae, 15 

Alacris ut currat viam. 

13. So Thomasius, on good MS. authority. The line is oftener 
read, Procedens de thalamo suo, which is quite inadmissible, no 
single instance in the genuine hymns of St. Ambrose occurring of a 
line beginning with two spondees ; invariably the second foot is an 
iambic. Talis partus decet Deum, which Daniel prints as the fourth 
line of this present hymn, is a transposition of words of which the 
older MSS. know nothing. 

15. gigas] The 'giants' of Gen. vi. 4 were, according to the 
interpretation of the early Church, gemince substantice ; the ' sons of 
God ' who begot them (ver. 2) being angels, who formed unions 
with the ' daughters of men. ' This scripture, so understood, must 
be brought into connexion with Ps. xviii. 6 (Vulg.), xix. 5 (E. V.), 
before we can enter into the full meaning of this line. In the 
1 double substance ' of the giants, thus born of heaven and of earth, 
Ambrose sees a resemblance to Him who in like manner was of 
twofold nature, divine and human. He might hardly have dared 
trace an analogy, but for the words of the Psalmist, lfeferred to 
above, in which he saw an undoubted reference to the earthly course 
of the Lord. Elsewhere (De Incarn. Dom. c. 5) he unfolds his 
meaning at full : Quem [Christum] quasi gigantem Sanctus David 
propheta describit, eo quod biformis geminaeque naturae unus sit 
consors divinitatis et corporis : qui tanquam sponsus procedens de 
thalamo suo exsultavit tanquam gigas ad currendam viam. Sponsus 
animae secundum Verbum ; gigas terrae, quia usus nostri officia per- 
currens, cum Deus semper esset seternus, Incarnationis sacramenta 
suscepit. Thus, too, in another hymn he sings : 
Processit aula Virginis, 
Suae gigas Ecclesise. 

And Adam of St. Victor, in a Christmas hymn : 

Gigas velox, gigas fortis, Ad currendam venit viam, 

Gigas nostrae victor mortis, Complens in se prophetiam 

Accinctus potentia, Et legis mysteria. 


Egressus ejus a Patre, 

Regressus ejus ad Patrem, 

Excursus usque ad inferos, 

Recursus ad sedem Dei. 20 

^Equalis seterno Patri, 
Carnis tropaeo cingere, 
Infirma nostri corporis 
Virtute firmans perpeti. 

17 — 20. He still draws his imagery from the igth Psalm (i8th, 
Vulg.). It is written there of the sun : A summo ceelo egressio 
ejus : et occursus ejus usque ad summum ejus. This he adapts to 
Him who said concerning Himself: Exivi a Patre, et veni in 
mundum : iterum relinquo mundum et vado ad Patrem (John xvi. 
28) ; who was acquainted with the deepest depths of humiliation, 
and afterwards with the highest heights of glory. Augustine 
(Serm. 372, 3) quotes this stanza as having just been sung in the 
Church : Hunc nostri gigantis excursum brevissime ac pulcherrime 
cecinit beatus Ambrosius in hynmo quem paulo ante cantastis. 

22. trop(zd\ I preferred stropheo {strophium or stropheum = 
(TrpocpLov) in the first edition ; but erroneously, and from insufficient 
acquaintance with the language of the Fathers. For them the risen 
flesh of Christ is constantly a tropceum which He erected in witness 
of his completed victory over death and him that had the power of 
death ; a rpoiraLou Kara datfiovccv, with reference to the heathen 
custom of claiming and celebrating a victory by the erection of a 
rpdiraiov nar ix^P^- Thus Clichtoveus : Christus per carnem 
assumptam debellato diabolo victor evasit, ipsamque glorificatam 
carnem tandem caelo intulit. 

Ibid. cingere~\ This is commonly read accingere ; but Mone, after 
Thomasius and the best MSS., as in the text. What, however, 
Mone means, when he remarks here, Ambrosius braucht manchmal 
deti Infinitiv mit dem Particip wie die Griechen den Aorist, namlich 
als historischen Aorist, it is difficult to guess. He can hardly take 
citigere as the infinitive active. What I understand St. Ambrose to 
say is this : * Equal to the Eternal Father, Thou clothest Thyself 


Prcesepe jam fulget tuum, 25 

Lumenque nox spirat novum, 
Quod nulla nox interpolet, 
Fideque jugi luceat. 

with the trophy of redeemed flesh, so strengthening with everlasting 
strength the weakness of our body. ' 

25. fulget\ Thus in the Evangd. Infant. c. 3, some enter the 
cave where the new-born Child is laid — et ecce repleta erat illa 
luminibus, lucernarum et candelarum fulgoribus excedentibus, et 
solari luce majoribus. 

27. nox interpolet\ Gregory the Great (Moral. iv. 6) : Antiquus 
hostis dies est, per naturam bene conditus ; sed nox est, per meritum 
ad fenebras delapsus. 



THE only notice which I have of the probable author 
of the following hymn is drawn from Clichtoveus, 
Elucidatorium y p. 198 : Auctor ejus fuisse traditur exi- 
mius pater Henricus Pistor, doctor theologus Parisiensis, 
et in religiosa domo Sti Victoris juxta Parisios monas- 
ticam vitam professus, qui etiam Concilio Constantinensi 
[1414 — 1418] interfuit, eaque tempestate, doctrina et 
virtute mirifice floruit. Referring to the histories of the 
Council of Constance, I can find no notice of his having 
taken any prominent share in its deliberations. Yet the 
internal evidence of the poem itself, as far as it reaches, 
is all in favour of this statement. That the writer was an 
accomplished theologian is plain ; and no less so that he 
was trained in the school, and formed upon the model, of 
Adam of St. Victor, as indeed we have just been told 
that he was himself a Victorine as well. 



PR^ECURSORIS et Baptistae 
Diem istum choms iste 
Veneretur laudibus. 
Vero die jam diescat, 

Ut in nostris elucescat 5 

Verus dies mentibus. 

Praecursore nondum nato, 

Xondum partu reserato, 

Reserantur mystica. 

X~ostro sole tunc exclusus, 10 

Verioris est perfusus 

Solis luce typica. 

Prius novit diem verum, 

Quam nostrorum sit dierum 

Usus beneficio. 15 

His renascens nondum natus 

X'ondum nascens est renatus 

Caelesti mysterio. 

Clausa pandit, ventre clausus ; 

Gestu plaudens, fit applausus 20 

Messiae praesentiae. 

VII. Clichtoveus, Elucidat. Eccles. p. 198 ; Rambach, Anthol. 
Christl. Gesiinge, p. 364; Daniel, Thes. Hymnol. vol. ii. p. 169. 
20, 21. Cf. Luke i. 41. 


Linguae gestus obsequuntur; 
Dum pro lingua sic loquuntur, 
Serviunt infantiae. 

Tori fructus matri dantur, 25 

Et jam matris excusantur 

Sterilis opprobria. 

Ortus tanti praecursoris 

Multos terret, sed terroris 

Comes est laetitia. 30 

Se a mundo servans mundum, 

Munde vivit intra mundum 

In aetate tenera. 

Ne formentur a convictu 

Mores, loco, veste, victu 35 

Mundi fugit prospera. 

Quem dum replet lux superna 

Verae lucis fit lucerna, 

Veri solis lucifer ; 

Novus praeco novae legis, 40 

Imrno novus novi regis 

Pugnaturi signifer. 

27. Cf. Luke i. 25. 

29. terret] Luke i. 65. Daniel has tenet ; one of the serious 
misprints with which his book, in many respects so carefully and 
conscientiously prepared, too much abounds. 

36. Cf. Luke i. 60 ; Matt. iii. 4. 

38. lucernd\ In the words of the Psalmist, Paravi lucernam 
Christi meo (Ps. cxxxi. 7, Vulg.), it was very common to find an 
express prophecy of the Baptist. The application was helped on 
by the reappearance of lucerna in the Lord's words about him : 
Ille erat lucerna ardens, et lucens (John v. 35, Vulg.). Cf. Augus- 
tine, Serm. 293, 45 Tertullian, Adv. Jud. 9. 

39. lucifer\ This title of the light-bringer, the morning star, 


Singulari prophetia 

Prophetarum monarchia 

Sublimatur omnium. 45 

Hi futurum, hic praesentem, 

Hi venturum, venientem 

Monstrat iste Filium. 

Dum baptizat Christum foris, 

Hic a Christo melioris 50 

Aquae tactu tingitur: 

Duos duplex lavat flumen, 

Isti nomen, illi numen 

Baptistae conceditur. 

Dum baptizat, baptizatur, 55 

Dumque lavat, hic lavatur 
Vi lavantis omnia. 

was a nomen proprium applied to the Baptist : y (puurj rov Aoyov, 
6 Avx vos r °v $&r6Si & €(a(T(p6pos 6 rov tjXlov Trp6$pofios, as he was 
called in the Greek Church. Durandus : Ideo autem Joannes 
dictus est Lucifer, quia obtulit novum tempus. To remember this, 
explains St. Bernard's comparison of him and that other * son of 
the morning,' or Lucifer (Isai. xiv. 12, 13, Vulg.), who sought not 
to go before the true Sun, but to usurp his place : Lucet ergo 
Johannes, tanto verius quanto minus appetit lucere. Fidelis Luci- 
fer, qui Solis justitioe non usurpare venerit, sed praenuntiare splend- 

43 — 45. sublimatur] Clichtoveus sees here allusion to Christ's 
word concerning John, that he was a prophet, * and more than a 
prophet' (Matt. xi. 9) ; compare Gregory the Great (Hom. 6 ' in 
Evang.). But it was often urged as a prerogative of the Baptist, 
that he was the only prophet who was himself prophesied of before 
his birth ; thus by Augustine (Serm. 288, 3) : Hic propheta, immo 
amplius quam propheta, praenuntiari meruit per prophetam. De 
illo namque dixit Isaias, Vox clamantis in deserto ; and this is 


Aquae lavant et lavantur, 
His lavandi vires dantur 
Baptizati gratia. 60 

O lucerna Verbi Dei, 

Ad caelestis nos diei 

Ducat luminaria, 

Nos ad portum ex hoc fluctu 

Nos ad risum ex hoc luctu r>5 

Christi trahat sratia. 

possibly the singularis profihetia, which the poet would say lifted 

him above all his fellows. 

58—60. lavantur\ So Marbod, in a leonine couplet : 
Non eguit tergi, voluit qui flumine mergi : 
Lotus aquas lavit, baptismaque sanctificavit. 

66. Other hymns upon John the Baptist, though inferior to this, 
have much merit. Thus in DaniePs Thes. HymnoL vol. ii. p. 217, 
an anonymous one beginning thus, but not at all maintaining the 
merits of its opening : 

In occursum praecursoris Quare nobis hebetatis 

Concurrenti cordis, oris, ' Sol supernse veritatis 

Curramus obsequio ; Praeluxit in sidere. 

In lucerna Lux laudetur, 

In praecone veneretur Hic pnecursor et propheta, 

Judex, Sol in radio. Immo prophetarum meta, 

Legi ponens terminum, 
Solem solet repentinum Mire ccepit, per applausum 

Vel quid grande vel divinum Ventri matris clausus clausum 
Vulgus asgre capere : Revelando Dominum. 

Another by Adam of St. Victor (Gautier, vol. ii. p. 28), yields these 

stanzas : 

Ad honorem tuum, Christe, Laus est Regis in praeconis 

Recolat Ecclesia Ipsius praeconio, 

Praecursoris et Baptistae Quem virtutum ditat donis, 

Tui natalitia. Sublimat officio. 


Agnum monstrat in aperto Multa docet millia. 

Vox clamantis in deserto, Non lux iste, sed lucerna, 

Vox Verbi praenuncia. Christus vere lux aeterna, 

Ardens fide, verbo lucens, Lux illustrans omnia. 
Et ad veram lucem ducens, 

These stanzas swarm with patristic and Scriptural allusion. And 
first, the poet brings out the exceptional circumstance, that, while 
for all other saints it is the day of their death, it is that of his birth, 
his nata/itia, which the Church celebrates — the Nativity of the 
Baptist. Augustine gives the reason (Serm. 290, c. 2) : Denique 
quia in magno Sacramento natus est Johannes, ipsius solius justi 
natalem diem celebrat Ecclesia. Et natalis Domini celebratur, sed 
tanquam Domini. Date mihi alium servum, praeter Johannem, in- 
ter Patriarchas, inter Prophetas, inter Apostolos, cujus natalem 
diem celebret Ecclesia Christi. Passionum diem servis plurimis 
celebramus ; nativitatis diem nemini nisi Johanni. The reasons thus 
touched on by Augustine, Durandus (Rationale, vii. 14) gives at 
full. They are found in the words of the angel, that many should 
rejoice at his birth (Luke i. 14) ; that he should be filled with the 
Holy Ghostf rom his mother^s ivomb (i. 15) ; and in his relation to 
his Lord, as the morning star whose appearing heralded the rising 
of the true Sun ; Cant. ii. 12 being in like manner applied to him ; 
and his the voice of the turtle, which, being heard in the land, told 
that winter was past, and the rain was over and gone. Nor should 
the reader miss, in the second stanza, the play with the words Vox 
and Verbnm, which is indeed much more than a play— John a 
smind, a startling cry in that old world to which he himself be- 
longed, a voice crying in the wilderness ; but Christ a new utterance 
out of the bosom of the Eternal, an articulate Word. Compare 
Origen (In yoan. ii. 26); and Augustine (Serm. 288. 3). The next 
line, Ardens fide, verbo lucens, is a commentary on the Saviour's 
words : Ille erat lucerna ardens et lucens. 



PUER natus in Bethlehem, 
Unde gaudet Jerusalem. 

Hic jacet in praesepio, 
Qui regnat sine termino. 

Cognovit bos et asinus 
Quod puer erat Dominus. 

VIII. Corner, Prompt. Devot. p. 278; Daniel, Thes. Hymnol. 
vol. i. p. 334. — This hymn, of a beautiful simplicity, and absorbing 
without an effort so much theology in its poetry, continued long a 
great favourite in the Lutheran Churches of Germany ; surviving 
among them till wellnigh the present day. 

5. bos et asinus] Two passages in the O. T. supplied the ground- 
work to that wide-spread legend which painters have so often made 
their own, and to which here the poet alludes, viz. that the ox and 
the ass recognized and worshipped that Lord whom the Jews 
ignored and rejected. The flrst, Isai. i. 3 : Cognovit bos possess- 
orem suum, et asinus praesepe domini sui : Israel autem me non 
cognovit, et populus meus non intellexit (Vulg.) ; in which was 
seen a prophetic reference to the manger at Bethlehem ; and no less 
at Hab. iii. 2, where the Septuagint has strangely enough, eV p4a<f 
$vo fyctiv yvooaPriar) : and the old Italic : In medio duorum animalium 
innotesceris. The bos and asinus were further mystically applied to 
the Jew and Gentile, who severally, in the persons of the shepherds 
and the wise men, were worshippers at the cradle of the new-born 

6. There is some merit in the following lines from the Musce 
Anglicance, vol. i. p. 115. Christian alcaics, which are not wholly 

H 2 


profane, are so rare, that on this score they are worth quoting : 
Reges de Saba veniunt, 
Aurum, tus, myrrham offerunt. 

Intrantes domum invicem 

Xovum salutant Principem. jo 

De matre natus Virgine 
Sine virili semine ; 

Sine serpentis vulnere 
De nostro venit sanguine ; 

In carne nobis similis, to 

Peccato sed dissimilis ; 

Ut redderet nos homines 
Deo et sibi similes. 

In hoc natali gaudio 

Benedicamus Domino : 20 

Laudetur sancta Trinitas, 
Deo dicamus gratias. 

Doloris expers, Mater amabilem 
Enixa prolem gramineo in toro 
Deponit immortale pignus, 
Arma timens pecorumque vultus. 

Ast ille cunas fortiter occupat, 
Fassusque numen, et jubare aureo 
Perfusus, absterret paventes 
Quadrupedes animosus infans. 

7. Reges] The old Church legend — the Roman Church makes it 
almost a matter of faith — that the wise men from the East were 
kings, rests on Isai. lx. 3; Ps. lxxii. 10, 15. To this last passage 
also we owe Saba, as the interpretation of the avaroXai of 
Matt. ii. 1. 



PETER the Venerable, born 1092 or 1094, of a noble 
family of Auvergne, was elected in 1122 Abbot of 
Clugny — being constituted thereby the chief of that 
reformed branch of the Benedictine order, the head- 
quarters of which were at Clugny in Burgundy. This 
admirable man, one of that wonderful galaxy of illustrious 
men who adorned the French Church in the first half of 
the twelfth century, was probably only second, although 
second by a veiy long interval, to St. Bernard in the 
influence which, by his talents and virtues, and position 
at the head of a great and important congregation, he 
was able to exercise upon his time. His history is in 
more ways than one bound up with that of his greater 
cotemporary. He is indeed now chiefly known for his 
keen though friendly controversy with St. Bernard, on 
the respective merits of the ' black ' and ' white ' monks, 
the Clugnian, and the yet later Cistercian, which last, 
now in their fervent youth, were carrying the world 
before them. The correspondence is as characteristic 
in its way as that with which it naturally suggests a com- 
parison, between St. Augustine and St. Jerome ; casting 
nearly as much light on the characters of the men, and 
far more on that of their times. But besides this, it 
was with him that Abelard found shelter, after the con- 
demnation of his errors, and to his good offlces the 
reconciliation which was effected, before Abelard's death. 


between him and St. Bernard, was owing. Nor ought 
it to be forgotten, that to Peter the Venerable western 
Christendom was indebted for its first accurate acquaint- 
ance with the Koran. Travelling in Spain, he was 
convinced how important it was that the Church should 
be thoroughly acquainted with that system with which it 
was in hostile contact, and at great cost he caused a 
translation of the Koran into Latin to be made. That 
he should have done this, is alone sufficient to mark him 
as no common man. He has also himself written a 
refutation of Mahometanism. He died in 1156. 

The poems which bear his name are not considerable 
in bulk, nor can they be esteemed of any very high 
order of merit. Yet apart from their interest as pro- 
ductions of one who played so important a part in the 
history of his age, these lines which immediately follow, 
and another hymn occupying a later place in this volume, 
possess a sufficient worth of their own to justify their 


C^ELUM gaude, terra plaude, 
Nemo mutus sit in laude : 
Auctor rerum creaturam 
Miseratus perituram, 

IX. Bibliotheca Cluniacensis, Paris, 16 14, p. 1349. 


Praebet dextram libertatis 5 

Jam ab hoste captivatis, 

Caelum terrae fundit rorem, 

Terra gignit Salvatorem. 

Chorus cantat angelorum, 

Cum sit infans Rex eorum. 10 

Venter ille virginalis, 

Dei cella specialis, 

Fecundatur Spiritu. 
Et ut virga parit florem, 
Sic et Virgo Redemptorem, 15 

Carnis tectum habitu. 
Matris alitur intactae 
Puer-Deus sacro lacte, 

Res stupenda saeculis ! 
Esca vivit aliena 20 

Per quem cuncta manent plena; 

Nullis par miraculis ! 
Pastu carnis enutritur 
Vitam carni qui largitur : 
Matris habet gremium, 25 

Quem et Patris solium : 
Virgo natum consolatur, 
Et ut Deum veneratur. 



ALANUS de Insulis, or of Lille, in Flanders, called 
Doctor Universalis from the extent of his acquire- 
ments, was born in the first half of the twelfth century, 
and died at the beginning of the next. His life is as 
perplexed a skein for the biographer to disentangle as 
can well be imagined, abundantly justifying the axiom 
of Bacon : Citius emergit veritas ex errore quam ex 
confusione — the main perplexity arising here from the 
difhculty of determining whether he and Alanus, also de 
Insulis, the friend of St. Bernard and Bishop of Auxerre, 
be one and the same person. The Biographie Univer- 
selle corrected this as an error, although a generally 
received one ; Oudin, it is true, having already shewn 
the way (De Script Eccles. vol. ii. p. 1389 — 1404) ; but 
Guericke and Neander again identify the two. The 
question, however, does not belong to this volume. The 
Doctor Universalis is undoubtedly the poet, and it is 
only with the poet we are here concerned. 

The only collected edition of his works was published 
by Charles de Visch, Antwerp, 1654; a volume so rare 
that only in the Imperial Library at Paris was I able to 
get sight of it, and to obtain a perfect copy of a very 
beautiful Ode, inserted later in this volume. His Para- 
bles were in high favour before the revival of learning ; 
but the work of his which enjoyed the greatest reputation 
was a long moral poem, entitled Anti-Claudianus, it does 


io 5 

not very clearly appear why (see Leyser, p. 10 17, who 
gives copious extracts from it). I know not whether it 
will quite bear out the praises which have been bestowed 
upon it and on its author. One says of him (Leyser, p. 
1020) : Inter sevi sui poetas facile familiam duxit; and 
Oudin (vol. ii. p. 1405), characterizes the poem as sin- 
gulari festivitate, lepore, et elegantia conscriptum ; see 
also Rambach, Anthol. Christl. Gesdnge, vol. i. p. 329. 
Certainly, in the following lines, the description of a 
natural Paradise, Ovidian both in their merits and de- 
fects, we must recognize the poet's hand. 

Est locus ex nostro secretus climate, tractu 

Longo, nostrorum ridens fermenta locorum : 

Iste potest solus quidquid loca csetera possunt. 

Quod minus in reliquis, melius suppletur in uno ; 

In quo pubescens tenera lanugine florum, 

Sideribus stellata suis, succensa rosarum, 

Murice, 1 terra novum contendit pingere cselum. 

Non ibi nascentis exspirat gratia floris, 

Nascendo moriens ; nec enim rosa, mane puella, 

Vespere languet anus, sed vultu semper eodem 

Gaudens interni juvenescit munere veris. 

Hunc florem non urit hyems, non decoquit sestas, ! 

Non ibi bacchantis Borese furit ira, nec illic 

Fulminat aura noti, nec spicula grandinis instant. 

Ambit silva locum, muri mentita figuram : 

Non florum prsedatur opes, foliique capillum 

Tondet hyems, teneram florum depasta juventam. 

Sirenes nemorum, citharistse veris, in illum 

Convenere locum, mellitaque carmina sparsim 

Commentantur aves, dum gutturis organa pulsant. 

In medio lacrymatur humus, fletuque beato 

1 Elsewhere he has this couplet : 

Ver, quasi fullo novus, reparando pallia pratis 
Horum succendit muricis igne togas. 


Producens lacrymas, fontem sudore perenni 
Parturit, et dulces potus singultat aquarum. 
Exuit ingenitas facies argenteus amnis ; 
Ad puri remeans elementi jura, nitore 
Fulgurat in proprio, peregrina foece solutus. 

The following lines, the last of them striking enough, 
form part, or, as Oudin asserts, the whole, of the genuine 
epitaph of Alanus. 

Alanum brevis hora brevi tumulo sepelivit, 
Qui duo, qui septem, qui totum scibile scivit ; 
Scire suum moriens dare vel retinere nequivit. 


HIC est qui, carnis intrans ergastula nostrse, 
Se pcenae vinxit, vinctos ut solveret ; aeger 
Factus, ut aegrotos sanaret ; pauper, ut ipsis 
Pauperibus conferret opem ; defunctus, ut ipsa 
Vita donaret defunctos : exsulis omen 5 

Passus, ut exilio miseros subduceret exul. 
Sic livore perit livor, sic vulnere vulnus, 
Sic morbus damnat morbum, mors morte fugatur : 
Sic moritur vivens, ut vivat mortuus ; haeres 
Exulat, ut servos haeredes reddat ; egenus 10 

Fit dives, pauperque potens, ut ditet egenos. 
Sic liber servit, ut servos liberet; imum 
Summa petunt, ut sic ascendant infima summum ; 

X. Alani Opera^ ed. C. de Visch, Antwerp, 1634, p. 377. 


Ut nox splendescat, splendor tenebrescit ; eclipsi 

Sol verus languescit, ut astra reducat ad ortum. 15 

^Egrotat medicus, ut sanet morbidus aegrum. 

Se cselum terrae conformat, cedrus hysopo, 

Ipse gigas nano, fumo lux, dives egeno, 

^Egroto sanus, servo rex, purpura sacco. 

Hic est, qui nostram sortem miseratus, ab aula 20 

^Eterni Patris egrediens, fastidia nostrae 

Sustinuit sortis ; sine crimine, criminis in se 

Defigens pcenas, et nostri damna reatus. 



HILDEBERT, born in 1057, shared as the scholar of 
Berengarius in all the highest culture of his age ; 
and having himself taught theology for a while at Mans, 
was in 1097 consecrated bishop of that see, and in 1125 
became Archbishop of Tours. A wise and gentle prelate, 
although not wanting in courage to dare, and fortitude 
to endure, when the cause of truth required it, he must 
ever be esteemed one of the fairest ornaments of the 
French Church. In his Letters he more than once seeks 
earnestly to check some of the superstitions of his time, 
as, for instance, the exaggerated value attributed to pil- 
grimages made to the Holy Land, and to the shrines of 
saints. He died in 11 34. There is an interesting sketch 
of his character and of his work in Neander ; s Life of St. 
Bernard, pp. 447—458. 

His verses amount, as the Benedictine editors calcu- 
late, to ten thousand or more. The enforced leisure of 
imprisonments and exiles may have given him oppor- 
tunity for composing so many. Of these a great number 
consist of versifications of scriptural history, or of the 
legends of saints, in heroic or elegiac verse, sometimes 
rhyming and sometimes not, and possess a very slight 
value. More curious than these is a legendary life of 
Mahomet, whereof Ampere (vol. iii. p. 440) has given a 
brief analysis ; and his lines on the death of his master 
Berengarius display true feeling, and a very deep affec- 


tion : however hard we may find it to go along, in every 
particular, with praise such as this : 

Cujus cura sequi naturam, legibus uti, 
Et mentem vitiis, ora negare dolis ; 

Virtutes opibus, verum praeponere falso, 
Nil vacuum sensu dicere, nil facere. 

Two or three further specimens of his poetry will shew 
that he could versify with considerable elegance and 
ease, as the following lines from a poem in praise of 
England : 

Anglia, terra ferax, tibi pax diuturna quietem, 

Multiplicem luxum merx opulenta dedit. 
Tu nimio nec stricta gelu, nec sidere fervens, 

Clementi caelo temperieque places. 
Cum pareret Natura parens, varioque favore 

Divideret dotes omnibus una locis, 
Elegit potiora tibi, matremque professa, 

Insula sis locuples, plenaque pacis, ait, 
Quidquid luxus amat, quidquid desiderat usus, 

Ex te proveniet, aut aliunde tibi. 
Te siquidem, licet occiduo sub sole latentem, 

Quseret et inveniet merce beata ratis : &c. 

And the following have a real energy. They make 
part of the soul's complaint against the tyranny of the 
flesh : 

Angustae fragilisque domus jam jamque ruentis 

Hospita, servili conditione premor. 
Triste jugum cervice gero, gravibusque catenis 

Proh dolor ! ad mortem non moritura trahor. 
Hei mihi ! quam docilis falli, quam prompta subire 

Turpia, quam velox ad mea damna fui. 

But grander still are the lines which follow. I have 
not inserted them in the body of this collection, lest I 


might seem to claim for them that entire sympathy which 
I am very far from doing. Yet, believing as we may, 
and, to give any meaning to a large period of Church 
history, we must, that Papal Rome of the middle ages 
had a work of God to accomplish for the taming of a 
violent and brutal world, in the midst of which she often 
lifted up the only voice which was anywhere heard in 
behalf of righteousness and truth — all which we may 
believe, with the fullest sense that her dominion was an 
unrighteous usurpation, however overruled for good to 
Christendom, which could then take no higher blessing, 
— believing this, we may freely admire these lines, so 
nobly telling of that true strength of spiritual power, 
which may be perfected in the utmost weakness of all 
other power. It is the city of Rome which speaks : 

Dum simulacra mihi, dum numina vana placerent, 

Militia, populo, mcenibus alta fui : 
At simul effigies, arasque superstitiosas 

Dejfciens, uni sum famulata Deo ; 
Cesserunt arces, cecidere palatia divum, 

Servivit populus, degeneravit eques. 
Vix scio quae fuerim : vix Romae Roma recordor .; 

Vix sinit occasus vel meminisse mei. 
Gratior haec jactura mihi successibus illis, 

Major sum pauper divite, stante jacens. 
Plus aquilis vexilla crucis, plus Caesare Petrus, 

Plus cinctis ducibus vulgus inerme dedit. 
Stans domui terras ; infernum diruta pulso ; 

Corpora stans, animas fracta jacensque rego. 
Tunc miserae plebi, nunc principibus tenebrarum 

Impero ; tunc urbes, nunc mea regna polus : . 
Quod ne Caesaribus videar debere vel armis, 

Et species rerum meque meosque trahat, 
Armorum vis illa perit, ruit alta Senatus 

Gloria, procumbunt templa, theatra jacent. 


Rostra vacant, edicta silent, sua praemia desunt 

Emeritis, populo jura, colonus agris. 
Ista jacent, ne forte meus spem ponat in illis 

Civis, et evacuet spemque bonumque crucis. 

As modern Rome builds in here and there an antique 
frieze or pillar into her more recent structures, so the 
poet has used here, as will be observed, three or four 
lines that belong to the old Latin anthology. 


N~" ECTAREUM rorem terris instillat Olympus, 
Totam respergunt flumina mellis humum. 
Aurea sanctomm rosa de prato Paradisi 
Virginis in gremium lapsa quievit ibi. 
Intra virgineum decus, intra claustra pudoris, 

Colligit angelicam Virginis aula rosam. 
Flos roseus, flos angelicus, flos iste beatus 
Vertitur in fcenum, fit caro nostra Deus. 

XI. Hildeberti et Marbodi Opp. p. 1313. — These very beautiful 
lines — for their neglect of some ordinary rules of the classical 
hexameter and pentameter ought not to conceal their beauty from 
us — form part of a longer poem ; but gain much through being dis- 
engaged from verses of an inferior quality. 

7. Flos roseus] Elsewhere Hildebert has some lines on Christ, 
the rose of Paradise, of which in like manner the real grace is 
not affected by some metrical and other faults. After a long 
description of the loveliness of this world, he turns suddenly round : 

At quia rlos mundi cito transit et aret, ad illam 
Quse nunquam marcet currite, quasso, rosam ; 


Vertitur in carnem Verbum Patris, at sine damno 

Vertitur in matrem virgo, sed absque viro. 10 

Lumine plena suo manet in nascente potestas, 

Virgineum florens in pariente decus, 
Sol tegitur nube, foeno flos, cortice granum, 

Mel cera, sacco purpura, carne Deus. 
^Etheris ac terrse sunt haec quasi fibula, sancto 15 

Foederis amplexu dissona regna ligans. 

Est Rosa quse dicit, Ego flos campi ; rosa certe 

Aurea, principii nescia, fine carens. 
Floruit in cselis, in mundo marcuit ; illic 

Semper olens, istic pallida facta parum. 
Hunc florem Paradisus habet, Seraphim videt, orbis 

Non capit, infernus nescit, adorat homo. 

Lumine] Should we not read Numine ? 




POTESTATE, non natura, 
Fit Creator creatura, 
Reportetur ut factura 
Factoris in gloria. 

Praedicatus per prophetas, 5 

Quem non capit locus, aetas, 
Nostrse sortis intrat metas, 
Non relinquens propria. 

Caelum terris inclinatur, 

Homo-Deus adunatur, 10 

Adunato famulatur 

Caelestis familia. 

Rex sacerdos consecratur 

Generalis, quod monstratur 

XII. Mone, Hy??i?ii Lat. Med. ALvi, vol. ii. p. 85 (but without 
ascription to the author) ; Gautier, Ada??i de S. Victor, vol. i. p. 10. 
— Dr. Neale, who before Mone had printed this grand hymn from a 
MS. missal {Seqiwitice, p. 80), had rightly divined Adam of St. 
Victor to be its author. It is certainly the richest and fullest of his 
Nativity hymns ; although the Jubilemus Salvatori, first rescued by 
Gautier from the oblivion of centuries (vol. i. p. 32), for which I 
have been unable to find room, does not fall very far behind it. 

3. Reportetur] Mone reads Reparetur. 

7. metas] So in the Greek theology, 6 axupriTos x w P^ TaL - 

11, 12. Cf. Luke ii. 10, 13; Matt. iv. 11 ; Luke xxii. 43; 
Matt. xxviii. 2. 



Cum pax terris nuntiatur, 15 

Et in altis gloria. 

Causam quaeris, modum rei? 

Causa prius omnes rei, 

Modus justum velle Dei, 

Sed conditum gratia. 20 

O quam dulce condimentum, 

Nobis mutans in pigmentum 

Cum aceto fel cruentum, 

Degustante Messia ! 

O salubre sacramentum, 25 

Quod nos ponit in jumentum, 

Plagis nostris dans unguentum, 

Ille de Samaria. 

Ille alter Elisaeus, 

Reputatus homo reus, 30 

Suscitavit homo-Deus 

Sunamitis puerum. 

23, 24. Cf. Matt xxvii. 34; Ps. lxix. 21. 

26 — 28. The poet claims here, as so many have done before him, 
the good Samaritan of the parable as the type of Christ. He does 
so more at length in a sequence on the Circumcision (Gautier, Adam 
de S. Victor, vol. i. p. 49) : 

Dum cadit secus Jericho vir Hierosolomita, 
Samaritanus affuit, quo lapso datur vita. 
Perduxit hunc in stabuium clementia divina, 
Vinum permiscens oleo suavi medicina. 
Curantis aegri vulnera sunt dulcia fomenta, 
Dum cunctis pcenitentia fuit reis inventa. 
Bini dati denarii sunt duo Testamenta, 
Dum Christus, finis utriusque, complet sacramenta. 

29 — 32. Cf. 2 Kin. iv. 7 — 37 ; and on Elisha as a type of 
Christ, Bernard, In Cant. Serm. 15, 16. 


Hic est gigas currens fortis, 

Qui, destructa lege mortis, 

Ad amoena primse sortis 35 

Ovem fert in humerum. 

Vivit, regnat Deus-homo, 

Trahens Orco lapsum pomo ; 

Caelo tractus gaudet homo, 

Denum complens numerum. 40 

33. gigas] Compare note, p. 90. 

37. Vivit\ Mone reads Vicit. 

39, 40. There is allusion here to that interpretation of the 
parable of the ten pieces of silver (Luke xv. 8 — 10), which makes 
the nine which were not lost to be the nine ranks of angels who 
stood in their first obedience, and the one lost to be the race of 

I 2 



JOHN MAUBURN was born at Brussels in 1460, 
and died Abbot of the Cloister of Livry, not far from 
Paris, in 1502. He was the author of several ascetic 
treatises, among others the Rosetum Spirituale, from 
which the following hymn is derived. 


HEU ! quid jaces stabulo, 
Omnium Creator, 
Vagiens cunabulo, 
Mundi reparator? 

XIII. Mauburnus, Rosetum Spirituale, Duaci, 1620, p. 416 ; 
Corner, Prompt. Devot. p. 280 ; Daniel, Thes. Hymnol. vol. i. 
p. 335. — These three stanzas are taken from a longer poem, consist- 
ing of thirteen in all, which commences : 

Eja, mea anima, 
Bethlehem eamus. 

I have not selected them, for they had long since been separated 
from the context, and constituted into a Christmas hymn — a great 
favourite in the early reformed Churches, so long as the practice of 
singing Latin compositions survived in these. It still occasionally 
retains a place in the German hymnals, but now in an old translation 
which commences thus : 

Warum liegt im Krippelein — 
As this hymn sometimes appears with a text differing not a little 


* Si rex, ubi purpura, 5 

Vel clientum murmura, 
Ubi aula regis ? 
Hic omnis penuria, 
Paupertatis curia, 
Forma novse legis. 10 

Istuc amor generis 

Me traxit humani, 

Quod se noxa sceleris 

Occidit profani. 

His meis inopiis 15 

Gratiarum copiis 

Te pergo ditare : 

Hocce natalitio, 

Vero sacrificio, 

Te volens beare. 20 

O te laudum millibus 

Laudo, laudo, laudo ; 

Tantis mirabilibus 

Plaudo, plaudo, plaudo : 

Gloria, sit gloria, 25 

Amanti memoria 

Domino in altis : 

Cui testimonia 

Dantur et praeconia 

Caelicis a psaltis. 30 

from that here presented, I may say that mine has been obtained, 
not from any secondary source, but from the Rosetum itself ; not 
indeed from the original edition, Basle, 1491, which lay not within 
my reach, but from that referred to above, which has much appear- 
ance of having been carefully edited. 



OTER fecundas, o ter jucundas 
Beatae noctis delicias, 
Quse suspiratas a caelo datas 
In terris paris delicias ! 

Gravem primaevae ob lapsum Evae 5 

Dum jamjam mundus emoritur, 
In carne meus, ut vivat, Deus, 
Sol vitae, mundo suboritur. 

^Eternum Lumen, immensum Numen 
Pannorum vinculis stringitur ; 10 

In vili caula, exclusus aula, 
Rex caeli bestiis cingitur. 

In cunis jacet, et infans tacet, 

Verbum quod loquitur omnia; 

Sol mundi friget, et flamma riget : 15 

Quid sibi volunt haec omnia? 

XIV. [Walraff,] Corolla ffymnorum, Coloniae, 1806, p. 8 ; 
Daniel, Thes. HymnoL vol. ii. p. 339. — This pretty poem, for it 
can claim no higher praise, is certainly not old, can scarcely be 
earlier than the fifteenth century ; and thus belongs, if I am right 
in my conjecture, to a period when the fountains of inspiration, at 
least of that inspiration which has given us the great medieval 
hymns, were very nearly exhausted. 



MAJESTATI sacrosanctae 
Militans cum triumphante 
Jubilet Ecclesia : 
Sic versetur laus in ore, 
Ne gravetur cor torpore, 5 

Quod degustat gaudia. 

Novum parit virga florem, 

Novum monstrat stella solem; 

Currunt ad praesepia 

Reges magi, qui non vagi, 10 

Sed praesagi, gaudent agi 

Stella duce praevia. 

Trium regum trinum munus; 

Christus, homo-Deus, unus 

Cum carne et anima; 15 

Deus trinus in personis 

Adoratur tribus donis, 

Unus in essentia. 

XV. Corner, Prompt. Devot. p. 367 ; Daniel, Thes. Hymnol. 
vol. v. p. 48. 

14. Compare on these Eastern Magi the grand lines of Prudentius 
(Cat/iemer. xii. I — 76), which rank among the noblest passages of 
his poetry. 


Myrrham ferunt, tus, et aurum, 

Plus pensantes, quam thesaurum, 20 

Typum, sub quo veritas; 

Trina dona, tres figurae : 

Rex in auro, Deus in ture, 

In myrrha mortalitas. 

Turis odor deitatem, 25 

Auri splendor dignitatem 

Regalis potentise : 

Myrrha caro Verbo nupta, 

Per quod manet incorrupta 

Caro carens carie. 30 

Tu nos, Christe, ab hac valle 
Duc ad vitam recto calle 
Per regum vestigia ; 
Ubi Patris, ubi Tui, 
Et Amoris Sacri, frui 
Mereamur gloria. Amen. 


36. The following lines, blending into a single stanza the twofold 
homage of the Jewish shepherds and the Gentile sages, were great 
favourites at and after the Reformation. They belong probably 
to the fourteenth century (Rambach, Anthol. Christl. Gesange, 

P- 333). 

Quem pastores laudavere, 

Quibus angeli dixere, 

* Absit vobis jam timere ' 

Natus est Rex glorise : 

Ad quem reges ambulabant, 

Aurum, tus, myrrham, portabant ; 

Hsec sincere immolabant 

Leoni victoriae. 


as there is good reason to suppose, in Spain. But 
the evidence from certain expressions which he uses, in 
favour of Saragossa as his birth-place, is equally good in 
favour of Tarragona, and of Calahorra ; and therefore is 
worthless in regard of them all. All that we know with 
any certainty about him, is drawn from a short autobio- 
graphy in verse, which he has prefixed to his poems, and 
which contains a catalogue of them. From this we gather 
that he was born a.d. 348 j that, having enjoyed a liberal 
education, and for a while practised as a pleader, he had 
filled important judicial posts in two cities, which he does 
not name, and had subsequently received a high military 
appointment at the Court; but that now, in his fifty- 
seventh year, in which this sketch of his life was given, 
he looked back with sorrow and shame to the sins and 
follies of his youth, to the worldliness of his middle age, 
and desired to dedicate what remained of his life to the 
earnest service of God. The year of his death is not 

Barth, always prodigal in his commendations of the 
Christian poets, is most prodigal of all in regard of Pru- 
dentius. Poeta eximius — eruditissimus et sanctissimus 
scriptor — nemo divinius de rebus Christianis unquam 
scripsit — such is the language which he uses about him : 
and even Bentley, not often so lavish of admiration, calls 
him \ the Horace and Virgil of the Christians.' Extrava- 


gant praises, compensated by as undue a depreciation ! 
For, giving, as he does, many and distinct tokens of 
belonging to an age of deeply sunken taste, yet was his 
gift of sacred poetry a most true one, and in many re- 
spects a most original ; and when it is charged against 
him (Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography) that 
' his Latinity is not formed, like that of Juvencus and 
Victorinus, upon the best ancient models, but is con- 
fessedly impure/ this is really his praise, — namely, that, 
whether consciously or unconsciously, he acted on the 
principle, that the new life claimed new forms in which 
to manifest itself, — that he did not shrink from helping 
forward that great transformation of the Latin language, 
which it needed to undergo, now that it should be the 
vehicle of truths which were altogether novel to it, having 
not yet risen up above the horizon of men's minds, at the 
time of its earlier and classical development. Let any 
one compare his poems with those of Juvencus or Sedu- 
lius, and his vast superiority will be at once manifest — 
that superiority mainly consisting in this, that he does 
hot attempt, as they did, to pour the new wine into old 
bottles; but has felt and understood that the new thoughts 
and feelings which Christianity has brought with it, must 
of necessity weave new garments for themselves. Dres- 
sel, the latest editor of the works of Prudentius (1860), 
declares that his is the sixty-third edition of these. See 
further an article, Prudentiana, in the Zeitsch. f. Luther* 
Theol., 1866, p. 620, by C. G. Schmidt; and a more ela- 
borate study, Prudentius in seiner Bedeutungfiir die Kirche 
seiner Zeit, by C. Brockhaus, Leipsic, 1872, a book full 
of interesting matter. 

The poems on which the reputation of Prudentius as 


a poet mainly rests, are his Cathemerinon=Diurnorum. 
The tenth, Deus, ignee fons animarum, is confessedly 
the grandest of them all. The first also, on Cockcrow, 
and the twelfth, a Hymn for Epiphany, though they 
attain not to the grandeur of this, may well share with 
it in our admiration. 


SALVETE, rlores martyrum, 
Quos lucis ipso in limine 
Christi insecutor sustulit, 
Ceu turbo nascentes rosas. 

Vos, prima Christi victima, 5 

Grex immolatorum tener, 
Aram ante ipsam simplices 
Palma et coronis luditis. 

Audit tyrannus anxius 

Adesse regum Principem, , 10 

Qui nomen Israel regat, 

Teneatque David regiam. 

XVI. Prudentii Carmina, ed. Obbarius, Tubingae, 1845, P- 4$ ; 
Daniel, Thes. Hymnol. vol. i. p. 124. — This hymn is rather a piece 
of mosaic, constructed from the twelfth Cathenierindn of Prudentius. 
It has, however, been so long current in the form in which it here 
appears, that I have neither excluded it, nor attempted to restore it 
to the form in which it appears in the text of the poet. 

1. flores mariyrum\ Augustine, or rather one in the name of 
Augustine, says, and with manifest reference to this hymn (Serm. 



Exclamat amens nuncio : 

Successor instat, pellimur; 

Satelles, i, ferrum rape, 15 

Perfunde cunas sanguine. 

Mas omnis infans occidat, 

Scrutare nutricum sinus, 

Fraus nequa furtim subtrahat 

Prolem virilis indolis. 20 

Transfigit ergo camifex, 
Mucrone districto furens, 
Effusa nuper corpora, 
Animasque rimatur novas. 

O barbarum spectaculum ! 25 

Vix interemptor invenit 
Locum minutis artubus 
Quo plaga descendat patens. 

Quid proficit tantum nefas? 

Quid crimen Herodem juvat? 30 

Unus tot inter funera 

Impune Christus tollitur. 

Inter cosevi sanguinis 

Fluenta solus integer, 

Ferrum, quod orbabat nurus, 35 

Partus fefellit Virginis. 

220, Appendix) : Jure dicuntur martymm flores, quos in medio 
frigore infidelitatis exortos, velut primas erumpentis Ecclesiae 
gemmas, qusedam persecutionis pruina decoxit. 



TRIA dona reges ferunt : 
Stella duce regem quaerunt, 
Per quam certi semper erunt 
De superno lumine. 

Auro regem venerantes, 5 

Ture Deum designantes, 
Myrrha mortem memorantes, 
Sacro docti Flamine. 

Dies iste jubileus 

Dici debet, quo Sabaeus, 10 

Plene credens quod sit Deus, 

Mentis gaudet requie ; 

Plebs Hebraea jam tabescit ; 

Multa sciens, Deum nescit ; 

Sed gentilis fide crescit, 15 

Visa Christi facie. 

XVII. Gautier, Adam de S. Victor, vol. ii. p. 341. — It was by 
him edited for the first time. I regret to have no choice but to omit 
the first stanza of this truly noble poem. 

10. Sabccus] This is to be explained by Ps. lxxi. 10 (Vulg.) : 
Reges Arabum et Saba dona adducent, which was always interpreted 
as having its fulfilment in the coming of the wise men (kings they 
were often, therefore, assumed to be), from the East. Thus, in a 
Nativity Hymn (see p. 100) we find this line : 

Reges de Saba veniunt. 


Synagoga pridem cara, 

Fide fulgens et praeclara, 

Vilis jacet et ignara 

Majestatis parvuli; 20 

Seges Christi prius rara, 

Mente rudis et amara, 

Contemplatur luce clara 

Salvatorem saeculi. 

Synagoga cceca, doles, 25 

Quia Sarse crescit proles, 

Cum ancillse prolem moles 

Gravis premat criminum. 

Tu tabescis et laboras; 

Sarali ridet dum tu ploras, 30 

Quia novit quem ignoras, 

Redemptorem hominum. 

Consecratus patris ore, 
Jacob gaudet cum tremore : 

25 — 32. The poet follows up the hint of St. Paul (Gal. iv. 
22 — 31), to the effect that in Isaac, the child of the free woman, we 
have the type of the Church ; that in Ishmael, the son of the bond- 
woman, we have the type of the Synagogue, serving in the oldness 
of the letter, not in the newness of the Spirit. Every line almost 
contains its own scriptural allusion ; thus, 25 — 28 to Gen. xxi. 
8, 9 ; 29, to ver. 6, 16 of the same chapter. 

33 — 39- He now shifts the types from Isaac and Ishmael to 
Jacob and Esau ; and again, as will be seen, is extraordinarily rich 
in his allusions to Scripture. 

33. Comecrattis] Cf. Gen. xxvii. 27 — 29 ; xxviii. I — 4. 

34. cum tremore~\ Cf. Gen. xxxii. 7. 


Tu rigaris caeli rore 35 

Et terras pinguedine; 

Delectaris in terrenis 

Rebus vanis et obscenis, 

Jacob tractat de serenis, 

Et Christi dulcedine. 40 

Unguentorum in odore 

Sancti currunt cum amore, 

Quia novo fragrat flore 

Nova Christi venia. 

Ad peccatum prius prona 45 

Jam percepit sponsa dona, 

Sponsa recens, et corona 

Decoratur aurea. 

35. Tu rigaris] This tu is addressed to Esau, as representing the 
Jewish Synagogue, and he is here reminded that he did but receive 
earthly promises from his father's mouth (in pinguedine terrae et in 
rore caeli desuper erit benedictio tua, Gen. xxvii. 39, 40, Vulg.), 
the heavenly having been all anticipated by his brother. Not to 
him, delighting in earthly things, but to his brother, it was given to 
behold the marvellous ladder reaching from earth to heaven, and 
with angels ascending and descending upon it (Gen. xxviii. 1 1 — 22) ; 
for, though it is not very clear, I must see an allusion to this at 
ver. 39. 

38. obscenis] There is doubtless allusion here to Heb. xii. 16, 
where, however, there may fairly be a question whether the irSpvos 
as well as the &ep7}\os belongs to Esau. 

41. Unguentoruin\ So the Bride in the Canticles (i. 3, Vulg.): 
Trahe me. Post te curremus in odorem unguentorum tuorum. 

45. Ad peccaturn\ Cf. Hos. ii. 2 — 24 ; Ephes. v. 26, 27. This 
line is alone sufficient to refute Gautier's assertion that the Bles9ed 
Virgin, and not the Church, is contemplated as the Bride of these 
latter stanzas. 

49 — 52. Cf. Ps. xliv. 10, 14 (Vulg.) : Astitit regina a dextris tuis 
in vestitu deaurato, . . . in fimbriis aureis. 



Adstat sponsa regi nato, 
Cui ritu servit grato 
In vestitu deaurato, 
Aureis in nmbriis : 
Orta rosa est ex spinis, 
Cujus ortus sive fmis 
Semper studet in divinis, 
Et regis deliciis. 

Haec est sponsa spiritalis, 
Vero Sponso specialis; 
Sponsus iste nos a malis 
Servet et eripiat; 
Mores tollat hic ineptos, 
Sibi reddat nos acceptos, 
Et ab hoste sic ereptos 
In caelis recipiat. Amen. 






TRIBUS signis Deo dignis 
Dies ista colitur ; 
Tria signa laude digna 
Coetus hic persequitur. 

Stella magos duxit vagos 5 

Ad prsesepe Domini, 
Congaudentes omnes gentes 
Ejus psallunt nomini. 

Novum mirum, aqua vinum 
Factum est nuptias : 10 

Mundus credit, Christus dedit 
Signorum primitias. 

XVIII. Bibl. Max. Patrum, Lugduni, 1677, vol. xxvii. p. 517. 
— This little poem, sometimes ascribed to Hartmann, a monk of 
St. Gall, brings together well the three events of the Lord's life, 
the three maiiifestations of His glory, which the Western Church 
brought into connexion with the feast of Epiphany, and commemo- 
rated upon that day. Thus Maximus, Bishop of Turin, at the 
beginning of the fifth century {Hom. 23) : In hac celebritate multi- 
plici nobis est festivitate laetandum. Ferunt enim hodie Christum 
Dominum nostrum vel stella duce a gentibus adoratum : invitatum 
ad nuptias aquas in vinum vertisse : vel suscepto a Johanne baptis- 
mate consecrasse fluenta Jordanis. Oportet itaque nos ad honorem 
Salvatoris nostri, cujus nativitatem debita nuper cum exultatione 
transegimus, etiam hunc virtutum ejus celebrare natalem. Cf. 
Durandus, RationaL vL 16. 



A Johanne in Jordane 
Christus baptizatus est : 
Unde lotus mundus totus 
Et purificatus est. 


Lector, lege ; a summo Rege 
Tibi benedictio 
Sit in caelis : plebs fidelis 
Psallat cum tripudio. Amen. 




VENANTIUS FORTUNATUS, an Italian by birth, 
whose life, however, was chiefly spent in Gaul, be- 
longs to the latter half of the sixth century. He was 
born in the district of Treviso, in the year 530, but passed 
the Alps a little before the Lombard invasion and the 
desolation of Northern Italy, and is memorable as one 
of the last, who, amid the advancing tide of barbarism, 
retained anything of the old classical culture. A master 
of vers de societe, which he made with a negligent ease, he 
wandered, a highly favoured guest, from castle to cloister 
in Gaul, repaying the hospitalities which he everywhere 
received, with neatly-turned compliments in verse. Such 
was the manner of his life, until Queen Khadegunda, 
now separated from her husband Clotaire, persuaded 
him to attach himself to her person, and, having received 
ordination, to settle at Poitiers, in the neighbourhood of 
which she was presiding over a monastic institution that 
had been founded by herself. Here he remained till his 
death, which took place in the year 609, having become, 
during the latter years of his life, Bishop of Poitiers. 

There is a chapter of singular liveliness in Thierry's 
Recits des Temps Merovingiens, Recit $nze, on the cha- 
racter of Fortunatus, and on his relations, which, though 
intimate, even Thierry does not pretend to consider 
otherwise than perfectly innocent, and removed from all 
scandal, with the Queen. It must be owned that there 
is some truth in the portraiture of the poet which he 
k 2 


draws. Even Guizot (Civilisation en France, i8me 
Legon), and Ozanam, who has much to say on Fortu- 
natus (La Civilisation Chretienne chez les Francs, ch. 9, 
pp. 412 — 424), must be taken to allow it. Yet had For- 
tunatus been merely that clever, frivolous, self-indulgent 
and vain character, which Thierry describes, he would 
scarcely have risen to the height and elevation which, in 
two or three of his poems, he has certainly attained ; — 
poems, it is true, inconceivably superior to the mass of 
those out of which they are taken. In Barth's Adver- 
saria there is the same exaggerated estimate of Fortu- 
natus which there is of Prudentius, and with far less in 
his poetry to justify or excuse it. It would indeed have 
been otherwise, had he often written as in the lines which 


CRUX benedicta nitet, Dominus qua carne pependit, 
Atque cruore suo vulnera nostra lavat; 
Mitis amore pio pro nobis victima factus, 

Traxit ab ore lupi qua sacer agnus oves ; 
Transfixis palmis ubi mundum a clade redemit, 5 

Atque suo clausit funere mortis iter. 

XIX. Thomasius, Hymnarium, Opp. vol. ii. p. 433 ; Daniei, 
Tkes. Hymnol. vol. i. p. 168. — These lines are only the portion of 
a far longer poem ; yet have a completeness in themselves which 
has long caused them to be current in their present shape, till it is 
almost forgotten that they only form part of a larger whole. 


Hic manus illa fuit clavis confixa cruentis, 

Quae eripuit Paulum crimine, morte Petrum. 
Fertilitate potens, o dulce et nobile lignum, 

Quando tuis ramis tam nova poma geris ; 10 

Cujus odore novo defuncta cadavera surgunt, 

Et redeunt vitae qui caruere die ; 
Nullum uret sestus sub frondibus arboris hujus, 

Luna nec in nocte, sol neque meridie. 
Tu plantata micas, secus est ubi cursus aquarum, 15 

Spargis et ornatas flore recente comas. 
Appensa est vitis inter tua brachia, de qua 

Dulcia sanguineo vina rubore fluunt. 

8. Paulum — Petrum] Cf. Acts ix. 5 ; xii. 7. 

13. 14. Cf. Ps. cxx. 6. 

14. The double false quantity of meridie, which it would be im- 
possible to ascribe to ignorance, must be taken as a token of the 
breaking up of the metrical scheme of verse which had already 
begun, and the coming in of quite another in its room. 

15. secus] The use of secus as a preposition governing an accu- 
sative (here understand /oca), and equivalent to secundum, though 
unknown to Augustan Latinity, belongs alike to the anterior and 
the subsequent periods of the language, at once to Cato and to Pliny. 
And thus we have Ps. i. 3 (Vulg.), words which doubtless were in 
the poet's mind when he wrote this line : Et erit tanquam lignum, 
quod plantatum est secus decursus aquarum, quod fructum suum 
dabit in tempore suo. 

1 7. vitis] The cfoss as the tree to which the vine is clinging, 
and from which its tendrils and fruit depend, is a beautiful weaving 
in of the image of the true Vine with the fact of the Crucifixion. The 
blending of one image and another comes perhaps yet more beauti- ' 
fully out, though not without a certain incoherence in the images, in 
that which sometimes appears in ancient works of Christian Art, — 
namely, Christ set forth as the Lamb round which the branches of a 
loaded vine are clustering and clinging. 




QUISQUIS ades, mediique subis in limina templi, 
Siste parum, insontemque tuo pro crimine passum 
Respice me, me conde animo, me in pectore serva. 
Ille ego qui, casus hominum miseratus acerbos, 
Huc veni, pacis promissae interpres, et ampla 5 

Communis culpae venia : hic clarissima ab alto 
Reddita lux terris, hic alma salutis imago ; 
Hic tibi sum requies, via recta, redemptio vera, 
Vexillumque Dei, signum et memorabile fari. 
Te propter vitamque tuam sum Virginis alvum 
Ingressus, sum factus homo, atque horrentia passus 
Funera, nec requiem terrarum in fmibus usquam 
Inveni, sed ubique minas, et ubique labores. 


XX. Fabricius, Poett. Vett. Christ. Opp. Basileae, 1562, p. 759; 
Lactantii Opp. Antverpise, 1555, p. 589. — This poem, consisting of 
about eighty lines, of which I have here given something less than 
half, appears in Fabricius, with the title De Beneficiis suis Christus. 
It is there ascribed to Lactantius, in most editions of whose works 
it in like manner appears, with the title De Passione Domini. 
Although Barth (Advers. xxxii. 2) maintains the correctness of this 
its ascription to Lactantius, there cannot be any doubt that it per- 
tains to a somewhat later age. But whoseever it may be, it does, 
in Bahr's words (Die Christl. Dichter Pom's, p. 22), 'belong to the 
more admirable productions of Christian poetry, and in this respect 
would not be unworthy of Lactantius,' having something of the 
true rhythm of the Latin hexameter, which so few of the Christian 
poets, or indeed of any of the poets who belonged to the silver age, 
were able to catch. 


Nunc me, nunc vero desertum, extrema secutum 
Supplicia, et dulci procul a genetrice levatum, 15 
Vertice ad usque pedes me lustra; en aspice crines 
Sanguine concretos, et sanguinolenta sub ipsis 
Colla comis, spinisque caput crudelibus haustum, 
Undique diva pluens vivum super ora cruorem; 
Compressos speculare oculos et luce carentes, 20 
Afflictasque genas, arentem suspice linguam 
Felle venenatam, et pallentes funere vultus. 
Cerne manus clavis fixas, tractosque lacertos, 
Atque ingens lateris vulnus \ cerne inde fluorem 
Sanguineum, fossosque pedes, artusque cruentos. 25 
Flecte genu, innocuo terramque cruore madentem 
Ore petens humili, lacrymis perfunde subortis, 
Et me nonnunquam devoto in corde, meosque 
Fer monitus, sectare meae vestigia vitse, 
Ipsaque supplicia inspiciens, mortemque severam, 3t 
Corporis innumeros memorans animique dolores, 
Disce adversa pati, et proprise invigilare saluti. 
Haec monumenta tibi si quando in mente juvabit 
Volvere, si qua fides animo tibi ferre, meorum 
Debita si pietas et gratia digna laborum 35 

Surget, erunt verae stimuli virtutis, eruntque 
Hostis in insidias clypei, quibus acer in omni 
Tutus eris victorque feres certamine palmam. 



DESERE jam, anima, lectulum soporis, 
Languor, torpor, vanitas excludatur foris, 
Intus cor efferveat facibus amoris, 
Recolens mirifica gesta Salvatoris. 

Mens, affectus, ratio, simul convenite, 
Occupari frivolis ultra jam nolite \ 
Discursus, vagatio, cum curis abite, 
Dum pertractat animus sacramenta vitae. 

XXI. Bibl. Max. Patrum, vol. xxvii. p. 444. — These stanzas 
form part of a long rhymed contemplation of our LorcTs life and 
death, sometimes ascribed to Anselm, bishop of Lucca, a contem- 
porary of his more illustrious English namesake. He died 1086. — 
These trochaic lines of thirteen syllables long, disposed in mono- 
rhymed quatrains, were great favourites in the middle ages, and 
much used for narrative poems ; and though, when too long drawn 
out, wearying in their monotony, and in the necessity of the pause 
falling in every line at exactly the same place, are capable both of 
strength and beauty. These Mcditations have both ; and Du Meril 
has lately published, for the first time, a long poem on the death of 
Thomas a Becket (Poesics Popid. Lat. 1847, p. 81), which will 
yield a stanza or two, if such were wanted, in proof. They relate 
to the feigned reconciliation of Henry II. with the archbishop, by 
which he drew him from his safe exile in France : 

JEgrzs dat inducias latro viatori, 
Sabulo vis turbinis, vis procellas flori ; 
Lupi cum ovicula ludus est dolori ; 
Vere lupus lusor est qui dat dolo mori. 

Ut post syrtes mittitur in Charybdim navis, 
Ut laxatis laqueis inescatur avis, 
Sic remisit exulem male pax suavis, 
Miscens crucis poculum sub verborum favis. 


Jesu mi dulcissime, Domine cselorum, 
Conditor omnipotens, Rex universorum, 10 

Qui jam actus sufficit mirari gestorum, 
Quae te ferre compulit salus miserorum? 

Te de caelis caritas traxit animarum, 
Pro quibus palatium deserens praeclarum, 
Miseram ingrediens vallem lacrymarum, 15 

Opus durum suscipis, et iter amarum. 

Tristatur laetitia, salus infirmatur, 

Panis vivus esurit, virtus sustentatur ; 

Sitit fons perpetuus, quo caelum potatur; 

Et ista quis intuens mira, non miratur? 20 

Oh mira dignatio pii Salvatoris, 
Oh vere mirifica pietas amoris; 
Expers culpse nosceris, Jesu, flos decoris, 
Ego tui, proh dolor ! causa sum doloris. 

Ego heu ! superbio, tu humiliaris \ 25 

Ego culpas perpetro, tu pcena mulctaris ; 
Ego fruor dulcibus, tu felle potaris ; 
Ego peto mollia, tu dure tractaris. 



ST. BERNARD, born in 1091, of a noble family, at 
Fontaine in Burgundy, became in 11 13 a monk of 
Citeaux, and in 11 15 first abbot of Clairvaux. He died 
Aug. 20, 1153. There have been other men, Augustine 
and Luther for instance, who by their words and writings 
have ploughed deeper and more lasting furrows in the 
great field of the Church, but probably no man during 
his lifetime ever exercised Zifiersonal influence in Christen- 
dom equal to his ; who was the stayer of popular com- 
motions, the queller of heresies, the umpire between 
princes and kings, the counsellor of popes, the founder, 
for so he may be esteemed, of an important religious 
Order, the author of a crusade. Besides all deeper qua- 
lities which would not alone have sufficed to effect all 
this, he was gifted by nature and grace with rarest powers 
of persuasion, (Doctor mellifluus as he was rightly called, 
though the honey perhaps was sometimes a little too 
honied,) and seems to have exercised a wellnigh magical 
influence upon all those with whom he was brought into 
contact. The hymns which usually go by his name were 
judged away from him on very slight and insufficient 
grounds, by Mabillon, in his edition of St. Bernard's 
works. But with the exception of the Cur mundus mzli- 
tat, there is no reason to doubt the correctness of their 
attribution to him. If he did not write, it is not easy to 
guess who could have written, them ; and indeed they 
bear profoundly the stamp of his mind, being only in- 
ferior in beauty to his prose. 



1. Ad Pedes. 

SALVE, mundi salutare, 
Salve salve, Jesu care ! 
Cruci tuse me aptare 
Vellem vere, tu scis quare, 
Da mihi tui copiam. 5 

Ac si prsesens sis, accedo, 
Immo te praesentem credo ; 
O quam mundum hic te cerno ! 
Ecce tibi me prosterno, 
Sis facilis ad veniam. 10 

Clavos pedum, plagas duras, 
Et tam graves impressuras 
Circumplector cum affectu, 
Tuo pavens in aspectu, 

XXII. Bernardi Opp. ed. Bened., Paris, 1719, vol. ii. pp. 916, 
919 ; Mone, Ifymn. Lat. Med. sEvi, vol. i. p. 162. — The full title 
of the poem from which two of its seven portions, each however 
complete in itself, are here drawn, is commonly as follows : Rhyth- 
mica oratio ad unum quodlibet membromm Christi patientis, et a 
cruce pendentis. I have chosen these two, the first and the last, 
because in a composition extending to nearly four hundred lines, it 
was necessary to make some selection ; yet its other divisions are 
of no inferior depth or beauty : quoe omnia, as Daniel says with 
merest truth, omnes divini amoris spirant aestus atque incendia, ut 
nil possit suavius dulciusque excogitari. 


Meorum memor vulnerum. 15 

Grates tantae caritati 

Nos agamus vulnerati: 

O amator peccatorum, 

Reparator constratorum, 

O dulcis pater pauperum ! 20 

Quidquid est in me confractum, 

Dissipatum aut distractum, 

Dulcis Jesu, totum sana, 

Tu restaura, tu complana, 

Tam pio medicamine. 25 

Te in tua cruce quaero, 

Prout queo, corde mero; 

Me sanabis hic, ut spero, 

Sana me, et salvus ero, 

In tuo lavans sanguine. 30 

Plagas tuas rubicundas, 

Et fixuras tam profundas, 

Cordi meo fac inscribi, 

Ut configar totus tibi, 

Te modis amans omnibus. 35 

Quisquis huc ad te accessit, 

15. Meorum~\ So Mone, on good MS. authority. It is a won- 
derful improvement on tuorum, the ordinary reading ; and at once 
carries conviction with it. 

36-40. So Mone ; but more commonly the latter half of this 
strophe is read as follows : 

Dulcis Jesu, pie Deus, 

Ad te clamo, licet reus, 

Prsebe mihi te benignum, 

Ne repellas me indignum 

De tuis sanctis pedibus. 


Et hos pedes corde pressit 

^Eger, sanus hinc abscessit, 

Hic relinquens quidquid gessit, 

Dans osculum vulneribus. 40 

Coram cruce procumbentem, 

Hosque pedes complectentem, 

Jesu bone, me ne spernas, 

Sed de cruce sancta cernas 

Compassionis gratia. 45 

In hac cruce stans directe 

Vide me, o mi dilecte, 

Ad te totum me converte; 

Esto sanus, dic aperte, 

Dimitto tibi omnia. 5u 

2. Ad Faciem. 

Salve, caput cruentatum, 
Totum spinis coronatum, 
Conquassatum, vulneratum, 
Arundine verberatum, 

5 1 . Salve, caput cruentatuni\ I have observed already how these 
great hymns of the early or medieval Church served as the founda- 
tion of some of the noblest post-Reformation hymns ; the later poet, 
no slavish copyist nor mere translator, yet rejoicing to find his in- 
spiration in these earlier sources. It has been so in the present 
instance. Paul Gerhard's Passion Hymn — 

O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden, 
Voll Schmerz und voller Hohn ! 

freely composed upon the model of what follows now. 



Facie sputis illita. 
Salve, cujus dulcis vultus, 
Immutatus et incultus, 
Immutavit suum florem, 
Totus versus in pallorem, 
Quem caeli tremit curia. 

Omnis vigor atque viror 
Hinc recessit, non admiror, 
Mors apparet in adspectu, 
Totus pendens in defectu, 
Attritus segra macie. 
Sic affectus, sic despectus, 
Propter me sic interfectus, 
Peccatori tam indigno 
Cum amoris intersigno 
Appare clara facie. 

In hac tua passione 
Me agnosce, Pastor bone, 
Cujus sumpsi mel ex ore, 
Haustum lactis cum dulcore, 
Prae omnibus deliciis. 
Non me reum asperneris, 
Nec indignum dedigneris; 
Morte tibi jam vicina 
Tuum caput hic inclina, 
In meis pausa brachiis. 

Tuae sanctae passioni 
Me gauderem interponi, 


73. Cf. Judg. xiv. 8, 9. 







In hac cruce tecum mori 

Prsesta crucis amatori, 

Sub cruce tua moriar. 85 

Morti tuae tam amarae 

Grates ago, Jesu care, 

Qui es clemens pie Deus, 

Fac quod petit tuus reus, 

Ut absque te non fmiar. 90 

Dum me mori est necesse, 

Noli mihi tunc deesse; 

In tremenda mortis hora 

Veni, Jesu, absque mora, 

Tuere me et libera. 95 

Cum me jubes emigrare, 

Jesu care, tunc appare ; 

O amator amplectende, 

Temetipsum tunc ostende 

In cruce salutifera. 100 



BONAVENTURA, a Tuscan by birth, was born in 
1221, and educated at Paris, which was still the 
most illustrious school of theology in Euiope. Upon 
entering the Franciscan Order, he changed his family 
name, John of Fidanza, to that by which he is known to 
the after world. In 1245 he became himself professor of 
theology at Paris, in 1256 General of his Order, and in 
1273 Cardinal-bishop of Alba. He died in 1274 at 
Lyons, during the Council which was held there, to 
which he had accompanied Pope Gregory X. At once 
a master in the scholastic and mystical theology, though 
greatest in the last, he received from the Church of the 
middle ages the title Doctor Seraphicus, and his own 
Order set him against the yet greater Dominican, Thomas 
Aquinas. His Biblia Pauperum is an honourable tes- 
timony to his zeal for the spread of Scriptural knowledge 
through the ministry of the Word among the common 
people : nor can any one have even a partial knowledge 
of his writings without the conviction that he who could 
thus write, must have possessed a rich personal familiarity 
with the deeper mysteries of the spiritual life. Yet this 
ought not to tempt us to deny that he shared, and shared 
largely, in the error as well as in the truth of his age. If 
indeed the Psaltery of the Virgin be his, which happily is 
doubtful, he did not merely acquiesce in that amount of 
worship of the creature which he found, but was also its 
enthusiastic promoter to a yet higher and wilder pitch 


than before it had reached. His Latin poetry is good, 
but does not call for any especial criticism. 


QUAM despectus, quam dejectus, 
Rex caelorum est effectus, 
Ut salvaret saeculum ; 
Esurivit et sitivit, 

Pauper et egenus ivit 5 

Usque ad patibulum. 

Recordare paupertatis, 

Et extremae vilitatis, 

Et gravis supplicii. 

Si es compos rationis, io 

Esto memor passionis, 

Fellis, et absinthii. 

Cum deductus est immensus, 

Et in cruce tunc suspensus, 

Fugerunt discipuli. 15 

Manus, pedes perfoderunt, 

Et aceto potaverunt 

Summum Regem saeculi ; 

Cujus oculi beati 

Sunt in cruce obscurati, 20 

XXIII. Bonaventurcz Opp. Lugduni, 1668, vol. vi. p. 423. 


Et vultus expalluit : 
Suo corpori tunc nudo 
Non remansit pulcritudo, 
Decor omnis aufugit. 

Qui hsec audis, ingemisce, 25 

Et in istis planctum misce, 

Et cordis mcestitias : 

Corpus ange, corde plange, 

Mentem frange, manu tange 

Christi mortis saevitias. 30 

Virum respice dolorum, 

Et novissimum virorum, 

Fortem ad supplicia. 1 

Tibi gratum sit et a^quum 

Jam in cruce mori secum, 35 

Compati convicia. 

Crucifixe, fac me fortem, 

Ut libenter tuam mortem 

Plangam, donec vixero. 

Tecum volo vulnerari, 40 

Te libenter amplexari 

In cruce desidero. 

22. nudo\ On the question whether this was literally true there 
is a painful but interesting discussion in Keim, Jcsu von Nazara, 
vol. iii. p. 418. 

35. scawi\ All are aware that there are, even in the Latin of the 
best age, some slight anticipations of the breaking down of the dis- 
tinction between the demonstrative and the rerlective pronouns 
(Zumpt, Lat. Gramm. § 550). In medieval Latin they are con- 
tinually confounded, and the reflective put instead of the demon- 
strative, as here, and again in the next stanza. 



QUANTUM hamum caritas tibi praesentavit, 
Mori cum pro homine te solicitavit ; 
Sed et esca placida hamum occupavit, 
Cum lucrari animas te per hoc monstravit. 

Te quidem aculeus hami non latebat, 5 

Sed illius punctio te non deterrebat, 
Immo hunc impetere tibi complacebat, 
Quia desiderium escse attrahebat. 

Ergo pro me misero, quem tu dilexisti, 

Mortis in aculeum sciens impegisti, 10 

Cum te Patri victimam sanctam obtulisti, 

Et in tuo sanguine sordidum lavisti. 

Heu ! cur beneficia Christi passionis 

Penes te memoriter, homo, non reponis? 

Per hanc enim rupti sunt laquei prsedonis, 15 

Per hanc Christus maximis te ditavit bonis. 

Suo quippe corpore languidum te pavit, 

Quem in suo sanguine gratis balneavit, 

Demum suum dulce cor tibi denudavit, 

Ut sic innotesceret quantum te amavit. 20 

XXIV. Bonaventurce Opp. vol. vi. p. 424 ; Corner, Prompt. 
Devot. p. 117, 



Oh ! quam dulce balneum, esca quam suavis, 
Quse sumenti digne fit Paradisi clavis : 
Est ei quem reficis nullus labor gravis, 
Licet sis fastidio cordibus ignavis. 

Cor ignavi siquidem minime perpendit 25 

Ad quid Christus optimum suum cor ostendit, 
Super alas positum crucis, nec attendit 
Quod reclinatorii vices hoc praetendit. 

Hoc reclinatorium quoties monstratur 

Piae nienti, toties ei glutinatur, 30 

Sicut et accipiter totus inescatur 

Super carnem rubeam, per quam revocatur. 

29. Hoc reclitiatoriuni\ The words of Christ, * The Son of man 
hath not where to lay his head' (Matt viii. 20), have often in devout 
meditations on the Cross and Passion been brought into connection 
with those other words of the Evangelist, * He bowed his head, 
and gave up the ghost ' (John xix. 30). So is it here ; that cross 
was the only resting-place which He found. 



SI vis vere gloriari, 
Et a Deo coronari 
Honore et gloria, 
Hanc Coronam contemplari 
Studeas, atque sectari 5 

Portantis vestigia. 

Hanc caelorum Rex portavit, 

Honoravit et sacravit 

Sacro suo capite ; 

In Mc galea pugnavit, 10 

Cum antiquum hostem stravit, 

Triumphans in stipite. 

Hsec pugnantis galea, 

Triumphantis laurea, 

Tiara pontificis : 15 

XXV. Clichtoveus, Elucidat. Eccles. Paris, 1556 (not in the 
earlier editions). Daniel, Thes. Hymnol. vol. v. p. 185, gives 
another fine hymn on the same theme. Balde has a series of brief 
poems on the several instruments of the passion. This on the 
thorn-crown : 

Hoc quale vides pressit Regem 

Diadema tuum : fulget acutus 

Utrinque lapis. Ferus in mediis 

Sentibus istas reperit gemmas 

Lictor, et alto vulnere fixit. 

En ut radiant ! rhamnus iaspis, 

Paliurus onyx, spina smaragdus, 

Tanto posthac verius omnes, 

Homo, divitias regnaque mundi 

Opulenta potes dicere Spinas. 

13 — 18. There appeared a very good translation of some of these 


Primum fuit spinea; 
Postmodum fit aurea 
Tactu sancti verticis. 

Spinarum aculeos 

Virtus fecit aureos 20 

Christi passionis ; 

Quae peccatis spineos, 

Mortis seternae reos, 

Adimplevit bonis. 

De malis colligitur, 25 

Et de spinis plectitur 

Spinea perversis : 

Sed in aurum vertitur, 

Quando culpa tollitur, 

Eisdem conversis. 30, 

Jesu pie, Jesu bone, 

Nostro nobis in agone 

Largire victoriam; 

Mores nostros sic compone, 

Ut perpetuae Coronae 35 

Mereamur gloriam. 

stanzas in FraseSs Magazine, May, 1849, p. 530 ; by Dr. Whewell, 
though not acknowledged as his. This stanza was rendered thus : 

1 Helm on soldier's forehead shining, 
Laurel, conqueror's brows entwining, 

High Priest's mitre dread ! 
'Twas of thorns ; but now, behold, 
'Tis become of purest gold, 

Touched by that blest head.' 



ECQUIS binas columbinas 
Alas dabit animae? 
Ut in almam crucis palmam 
Evolet citissime, 

In qua Jesus totus laesus, 5 

Orbis desiderium, 
Et immensus est suspensus, 
Factus improperium ! 

Oh cor, scande ; Jesu, pande 

Caritatis viscera, 10 

Et profunde me reconde 

Intra sacra vulnera ; 

In superna me caverna 

Colloca maceriae; 

Hic viventi, quiescenti 15 

Finis est miseriae ! 

XXVI. [Walraff,] Corolla Hymnomun, p. 16 ; Daniel, Thes. 
Hymnol. vol. ii. p. 345. — Of this graceful little poem, which, to 
judge from internal evidence, is of no great antiquity, I am not able 
to give any satisfactory account. I have only met it twice, as noted 
above, and in neither case with any indication of its source or age. 
It is certainly of a very rare perfection in its kind. 

8. imp7'operium\ = convichun, derisio, and probably connected 
with probriun, is a word peculiar to Church Latin. It occurs 
several times in the Vulgate, as Rom. xv. 3 ; Heb. xi. 26. The 
verb imprope)'are ( = dve&i^eiv) is used by Petronius. 

13, 14. cavernd . . . macerice~\ He alludes to Cant. ii. 14 
(Vulg. ) : Columba mea in foraminibus petrae, in cavernd macerice : 


O mi Deus, amor meus ! 

Tune pro me pateris? 

Proque indigno, crucis ligno, 

Jesu mi, sufrlgeris? 20 

Pro latrone, Jesu bone, 

Tu in crucem tolleris? 

Pro peccatis meis gratis, 

Vita mea, moreris? 

Non sum tanti, Jesu, quanti 25 

Amor tuus aestimat; 

Heu ! cur ego vitam dego, 

Si cor te non redamat? 

Benedictus sit invictus 

Amor vincens omnia; 30 

Amor fortis, tela mortis 

Reputans ut somnia. 

Iste fecit, et refecit 

Amor, Jesu, perditum ; 

O insignis, Amor, ignis, 35 

Cor accende frigidum ! 

O fac vere cor ardere, 

Fac me te diligere, 

Da conjungi, da defungi 

Tecum, Jesu, et vivere ! 40 

on which words St. Bernard writes (/;/ Cant. Serm. 61) : Foramina 
petrae, vulnera Christi. In his passer invenit sibi domum et turtur 
nidum, ubi reponat pullos suos : in his se columba tutatur, et cir- 
cumvolitantem intuetur accipitrem. 




VEXILLA Regis prodeunt, 
Fulget cmcis mysterium, 
Quo carne carnis conditor 
Suspensus est patibulo : 

Quo vulneratus insuper 
Mucrone diro lancese, 
Ut nos lavaret crimine 
Manavit unda et sanguine. 

XXVII. Clichtoveus Elucidat. Eccles. p. 30; Daniel, Thes. 
Hymnol. vol. i. p. 160. — ' This world-famous hymn, one of the 
grandest in the treasury of the Latin Church, was composed by 
Fortunatus, on occasion of the reception of certain relics by S. 
Gregory of Tours and S. Radegund previously to the consecration 
of a church at Poictiers. It is therefore strictly and primarily a 
processional hymn, though very naturally afterwards adapted to 
Passiontide ' (Neale, Medieval Hymns, p. 6, where also is to be 
found his own fine translation of this hymn, beginning, ' The royal 
banners forvvard go'). For other occasions of the liturgic use of this 
hymn, see Daniel, p. 161. He omits, however, to mention how, 
more than any other, it was the Crusaders' Hymn. It is only to 
be regretted that the text is not in a more satisfactory condition. 
Mention should not be omitted of another translation by Keble. 

I. Clichtoveus gives a special signification to these 'standards of 
the Cross? : insignia sacrae passionis, ut flagelJa, corona spinea, 
clavi, lancea, sunt ejus vexilla, quibus antiquum debellavit hostem, 
et principem hujus mundi ejecit foras. Whether he has right in this 
it is not very easy to decide. 


Impleta sunt quae concinit 

David fideli carmine, 10 

Dicens, In nationibus 

Regnavit a ligno Deus. 

Arbor decora et fulgida, 

Ornata Regis purpura, 

Electa digno stipite 15 

Tam sancta membra tangere ; 

Beata cujus brachiis 

Pretium pependit saeculi, 

Statera facta corporis, 

Tulitque praedam tartaris. 20 

11, 12. In some Greek copies of Ps. xcv. 10 (xcvi. 10, E. V.), 
after the words eXirare eV rols edyeaiv, 'O Kvpios ifZao~i\evo~€ } has 
been added airb rov £v\ov, evidently by a Christian hand ; and the 
same appears in the old Latin version, where the words stood, 
Dicite in nationibus, Regnavit a ligno Deus. Much stress was laid 
on these words by some in the early Church, by Justin Martyr, by 
Augustine, and by others, as containing a prophetic intimation of 
the manner of Christ's death, and of his v\f/uais in the double sense 
of that word (John xii. 34). 

14. purpur8\ An old expositor, Purpurain regis vocat pur- 
pureum Christi sanguinem quem in crucifixione pro nobis effudit. 

20. It must be confessed that this closing line is very awkward, 
and some slightly different readings fail to remove the awkwardness 
of it. 



MUNDI renovatio 
Nova parit gaudia, 
Resurgente Domino 
Conresurgunt omnia: 
Elementa serviunt, 5 

Et Auctoris sentiunt 
Quanta sint sollemnia. 

Ignis volat mobilis, 

Et aer volubilis, 

Fluit aqua labilis, 10 

Terra manet stabilis, 

Alta petunt levia, 

Centrum tenent gravia, 

Renovantur omnia. 

XXVIII. Clichtoveus, Elncidat. Eccles. p. 168 ; Daniel, Thes. 
Hymnol. vol. ii. p. 68 ; Gautier, Adam de S. Victor, vol. i. p. 82. 
— The thought of the coincidence of the natural and spiritual 
spring, the falling in of the world's Easter and the Church's, and 
of the a.irapx<& of both, which is the underlying thought of this 
and the last poem, comes beautifully out in a noble Easter Ser- 
mon by Gregory of Nazianzum, in which he exclaims : Nw eap 
KoafjLiKbv, eap iri/zvixaTLKov ' eap i//i>xcuV, %ap o~wixa<Jiv ' eap op(ji\j.s.vov , 
zap aSpaTOv. 

i 5 6 


Caelum fit serenius, 
Et mare tranquillius, 
Spirat aura levius, 
Vallis nostra floruit ; 
Revirescunt arida, 
Recalescunt frigida, 
Quia ver intepuit. 

Gelu mortis solvitur, 
Princeps mundi tollitur, 
Et ejus destruitur 
In nobis imperium ; 
Dum tenere voluit 
In quo nihil habuit, 
Jus amisit proprium. 

Vita mortem superat; 
Homo jam recuperat 
Quod prius amiserat 
Paradisi gaudium. 
Viam praebet facilem 
Cherubim, versatilem 
Amovendo gladium. 






23. tollitur\ Some MSS. read fallitur. 
27. nihil habuit\ Cf. John xiv. 30 (Vulg. ). 
mundi hujus, et in me non habet quidquam. 
34. versatileni] Cf. Gen. iii. 24 (Vulg.). 

Venit princeps 



H^EC est dies triumphalis, 
Mundo grata perdito, 
Dans solamen nostris malis, 
Hoste jugo subdito. 

Haec est dies specialis, 5 

Tanto nitens merito, 
Quod peccati fit finalis, 
Mali malo irrito. 

Duce fraudis demolito 

Terris pax indicitur, 10 

Et exhausto aconito 

Salus segris redditur : 

Morte mortis morsu trito 

Vitae spes infunditur, 

XXIX. Flacius Illyricus, Poemm. de Corrapto Ecclesice Statu> 
Basle, 1556, p. 71. 

8. Mali malo] The first mali is probably mdlum, and a play 
intended on the word ; such it often provoked, as in Quarles' Totus 
mundus jacet in mali-ligno. 

9. Duce fraudis] On this final defeat of the fraud of the arch- 
tempter there are some fine stanzas in the grand hymn of Fortunatus, 
Pange, lingua, gloriosi &c. : 

De parentis protoplasti fraude Factor condolens, 
Quando pomi noxialis morsu in mortem corruit, 
Ipse lignum tunc notavit, damna ligni ut solveret. 

Hoc opus nostrse salutis ordo depoposcerat, 
Multiformis proditoris ars ut artem falleret, 
Et medelam ferret inde, hostis unde laeserat. 


Claustro pestis inanito 15 

Nefas omne pellitur. 

Cum nos Christus fecundare 

Tanto vellet fcedere, 

Et se morti gratis dare 

Pro reorum scelere, 20 

Jure decet hunc laudare, 

Et ei consurgere, 

Pascha novum celebrare 

Corde, voce, et opere. 

17, 18. fccundare . . . fcedere] This at first sight seems a strange 
mixture of metaphors ; but by fcedus doubtless the poet means the 
marriage-union betwixt the Church or single soul and its Lord, 
whereby the former is made fruitful (fecundata), and enabled to 
bring forth spiritual children to Him. Thus Hugh of St. Victor : 
Quatuor sunt propter quae anima dicitur sponsa . . . and then 
among these four : proles virtutum, quibus fecundata est divini Verbi 



MORTIS portis fractis, fortis 
Fortior vim sustulit ; 
Et per crucem regem trucem 
Infernorum perculit. 

Lumen clarum tenebrarum 5 

Sedibus resplenduit; 
Dum salvare, recreare, 
Quod creavit, voluit. 
Hinc Creator, ne peccator 
Moreretur, moritur ; 10 

Cujus morte nova sorte 
Vita nobis oritur. 
Inde Sathan victus gemit, 
Unde victor nos redemit; 
Illud illi fit letale, 15 

Quod est homini vitale, 
Qui, dum captat, capitur, 
Et, dum mactat, moritur. 
Sic decenter, sic potenter 
Rex devincens inferos, 20 

Linquens ima die prima, 
Rediit ad superos. 

XXX. Bibliotheca Cluniacensis^ Paris, 1614, p. 1349. 


Resurrexit, et revexit 

Secum Deus hominem, 

Reparando quam creando 25 

Dederat originem. 

Per Auctoris passionem 

Ad amissam regionem 

Primus redit nunc colonus : 

Unde ketus fit hic sonus. 30 

30. I make room here for a thoroughly dramatic fragment from 
a Sequence on the Resurrection, though without any special fit- 
ness at this place : 

Dic nobis Maria : Quid vidisti in via ? 

Sepulcrum Christi viventis, et gloriam vidi resurgentis. 

Dic nobis Maria : Quid vidisti in via ? 

Angelicos testes, sudarium et vestes. 

Dic nobis Maria : Quid vidisti in via ? 

Surrexit Christus spes mea ; praecedet vos in Galilsea. 

Credendum est magis soli Mariae veraci quam Judaeorum 

turbae fallaci. 
Scimus Christum surrexisse ex mortuis vere ; 
Tu nobis, Victor, Rex, miserere. 



PONE luctum, Magdalena, 
Et serena lacrymas; 
Non est jam Simonis ccena, 
Non cur fletum exprimas ; 
Causae mille sunt laetandi, 5 

Causse mille exultandi : 
Alleluia resonet. 

Sume risum, Magdalena, 

Frons nitescat lucida ; 

Demigravit omnis poena, 10 

Lux coruscat fulgida; 

XXXI. [Walraff,] Corolla Hymnorum, p. 36; Daniel, T/ies. 
Hymnol. vol. ii. p. 365. 

3. Simonis ccend\ This identification of Mary Magdalene and 
{ the woman that was a sinner ' (Luke vii. 37) runs through all the 
theology of the middle ages ; constantly recurring in the hymns ; 
thus in the Dics Irce ; and in another hymn, published, I believe, 
for the first time in the Missale de Arbuthnott, 1864, p. 176 ; where 
of Mary Magdalene it is said : 

Haec est illa fcemina, 
Cujus cuncta crimina 
Ad Christi vestigia 
Ejus lavit gratia. 
Quae dum plorat, et mens orat, 
Facto clamat quod cor amat 
Jesum super omnia ; 
Non ignorat quem adorat, 
Quid precetur ; sed deletur 
Quod mens timet conscia. 


Christus mundum liberavit, 
Et de morte triumphavit : 
Alleluia resonet. 

Gaude, plaude, Magdalena, 15 

Tumba Christus exiit, 
Tristis est peracta scena, 
Victor mortis rediit; 
Quem deflebas morientem, 
Nunc arride resurgentem : 20 

Alleluia resonet. 

Tolle vultum, Magdalena, 
Redivivum obstupe; 
Vide frons quam sit amcena, 
Quinque plagas aspice; 25 

Fulgent sicut margaritae, 
Ornamenta novse vitae : 
Alleluia resonet. 

Vive, vive, Magdalena, 

Tua lux reversa est, 30 

Gaudiis turgescat vena, 

Mortis vis abstersa est ; 

Mcesti procul sunt dolores, 

Laeti redeant amores : 

Alleiuia resonet. 35 

i6 3 


ECCE dies celebris ! 
Lux succedit tenebris, 
Morti resurrectio» 
Laetis cedant tristia, 

Cum sit major gloria, § 

Quam prima confusio. 
Umbram fdgat veritas, 
Vetustatem novitas, 
Luctum consolatio. 

Pascha novum colite ; 10 

Quod praeit in capite, 

Membra sperent singula; 

Pascha novum Christus est, 

Quid pro nobis passus est, 

Agnus sine macula. 15 

Hostis, qui nos circuit, 
Praedam Christus eruit : 
Quod Samson praecinuit, 
Dum leonem lacerat. 

XXXII. Clichtoveus, Elucidat. Eccles. p, 173; Daniel, Thes> 
Hymnol. vol. v. p. 194 ; Gautier, Adani de S. Victor, vol. i. 54, 
16. qui nos circuit] Cf. I Pet. v. 8 (Vulg.). 
18, 19. Cf. Judg. xiv. 6. 

M 2 


David fortis viribus 20 

A leonis unguibus, 
Et ab ursi faucibus, 
Gregem Patris liberat. 

Qui in morte plures stravit, 

Samson, Christum figiiravit, 25 

Cujus mors victoria : 

Samson dictus Sol eorwn ; 

Christus lux est electorum, 

Quos illustrat gratia. 

Jam de crucis sacro vecte 30 

Botrus fluit in dilectae 
Penetral Ecclesiae. 

20 — 23. Cf. 1 Sam. xvii. 34 — 36. 

24 — 26. mors victoria] Gregory the Great (Mor. xxix. 14) : 
Pauci enim ex plebe Israelitica ipso praedicante crediderunt : in- 
numeri vero gentium populi viam vitas moriente illo secuti sunt. 
Quod bene Samson in semetipso dudum figuraliter expressit, qui 
paucos quidem, dum viveret, interemit ; destructo autem templo, 
hostes innumeros, cum moreretur, occidit. 

27. Sol eorum~\ This etymology of Samson's name is derived 
from Jerome, who (De No?n. Heb.) explains Samson : Sol eorum, 
vel solis fortitudo — their light, or, the light of them that are his. 
So too Augustine (Enarr. in Ps. lxxx. 10) : Unde Samson noster, 
qui etiam interpretatur Sol ipsorum, eorum scilicet quibus lucet ; 
non omnium, sicuti est oriens super bonos et malos, sed sol quo- 
rundam, sol justitiae, figuram enim habebat Christi. They may 
have been right in seeing s/iemes/i, or the sun, in Samson's name ; 
but ' sol eorum ' is of course a mistake. 

31. Botrus\ Among the Old Testament types of Christ and his 
cross, that of Num. xiii. 23, 24, was ever counted as one : thus 
Hugh of St. Victor (Inst. Mor. i. 4) : Christus est Botrus de terra 
promissionis in desertum translatus ; the type of the cross being 


Jam calcato torculari, 
Musto gaudent ebriari 
Gentium primitiae. .35 

Saccus scissus et pertusus 

In regales transit usus ; 

Saccus fit soccus gratiae, 

Caro victrix miseriae. 

Quia regem peremerunt, 40 

Rei regnum perdiderunt : 

the pole (vectis is the word of the Vulgate), on which this bunch 
of grapes was suspended. Augustine (Enarr. in Ps. viii. 1) : 
Nam et Verbum divinum potest Uva intelligi. Dictus est enim et 
Dominus botrus uvse, quem ligno suspensum, de terra promissionis, 
qui praemissi erant a populo Israel, tanquam crucifixum, attulerunt. 
In Christ's passion this bunch of grapes was trodden as in the wine- 
press (Isai. lxiii. 3, 6), and His blood as the wine fiowed into the 
penetral or v-Ko\i\viov of the Church. 

In ligno botrus est pendens, in cruce Christus ; 

Profluit hinc vinum, profluit inde salus. 
Ejicitur praelo de botro gratia vini ; 

Praelo pressa crucis sanguis et unda fluit. — Pet. de Riga. 

36 — 38. Saccus scissus] The poet has in his eye Ps. xxix. 12 
(Vulg.), xxx. n (E. V.) : Conscidisti saccum meum, et circumde- 
disti me lsetitia ; upon which words Augustine (Serm. 336, c. 4) : 
Saccus ejus erat similitudo carnis peccati. In passione conscissus 
est saccus. And then presently, with allusion to the saccus as the 
purse or bag of money : Conscidit saccum lancea persecutor, et 
fudit pretium nostrum Redemtor Qohn xix. 34] ; cf. Enarr. 2da in 
Ps. xxi. 28. — Clichtoveus ; In regales transit usus y quando per 
resurrectionem immortalitatis stola corpus est indutum, et incorrup- 
tibilitatis virtute praecinctum, 

41. Rei\ A far better reading, as it seems to me, than Dei, 
which Gautier has. We may compare Augustine : Ut possiderent, 
occiderunt ; et quia occiderunt, perdiderunt. 


Sed non deletur penitus 
Cain, in signum positus. 

Reprobatus et abjectus 

Lapis iste, nunc electus, 45 

In tropaeum stat erectus, 

Et in caput anguli. 

Culpam delens non naturam, 

Novam creat creaturam, 

Tenens in se ligaturam 50 

Utriusque populi. 

Capiti sit gloria 

Membrisque concordia ! Amen. 

43. in signum positus] The poet with only the Vulgate before 
him, in which he found (Gen. iv. 15), Posuitque Dominus Cain 
signum (Cain being undeclined) , understood the passage thus : 
1 The Lord set Cain for a sign, ' instead of ' The Lord set a sign 
upon Cain.' In his application of these words to the Jewish 
people, the great collective Cain, the murderer of Him whose blood 
spake better things than that of Abel, he had many forerunners. 
They too, it was said, were not destroyed, but, while other nations 
were fused and absorbed and lost in the great Roman world, abode 
apart, being set for an everlasting sign. Thus Augustine ; who 
even in his time found a wonderful significance in this continued 
and separate existence of the Jews, and therein a prophetic fulfil- 
ment of these words of Genesis, as also of those of the Psalmist : 
'Slay them not, lest my people forget it ' {Con. Fciust. 12, 13; 
JEnarr. in Ps. lviii. 12). 



ZYMA vetus expurgetur, 
Ut sincere celebretur 
Nova resurrectio. 
Haec est dies nostrae spei, 
Hujus mira vis diei 5 

Legis testimonio. 

Haec ^Egyptum spoliavit, 

Et Hebraeos liberavit 

De fornace ferrea : 

His in arcto constitutis 10 

Opus erat servitutis 

Lutum, later, palea. 

XXXIII. Clichtoveus, Elucidat. Eccles. p. 169 ; Rambach, 
Anthol. Christl. Gesange, p. 290 ; Daniel, Thes. HymnoL vol. ii. 
p. 69 ; Gautier, Adam de S. Victor, vol. i. p. 88. — Clichtoveus 
says truly here : Sane haec prosa admodum divina est, paucis multa 
complectens, et tota ex sacris literis prseclare desumpta, cujus et 
historias et sententias congruenter copioseque adaptat proposito, ut 
hoc suo opificio auctor ipsius liquido prodat se in divinis Scripturis 
apprime exercitatum et promptum fuisse. 

1 — 2. Cf. I Cor. v. 7, 8 ; Exod. xii. 19. 

4 — 6. Cf. Exod. xii. 41, 42. 

12. Lutum, later, palea~\ Cf. Exod. i. 14 ; v. 12. In the 
'mortar,' 'brick,' and 'straw' were often seen, as here, the works 
of the old man, while still serving sin in the* spiritual Egypt. 
Thus Hugh of St. Victor (Alleg. iii. 1) : Lutum, in quo servierunt 


Jam divinae laus virtutis, 

Jam triumphi, jam salutis 

Vox erumpat libera : 15 

Haec est dies quam fecit Dominus, 

Dies nostri doloris terminus, 

Dies salutifera. 

Lex est umbra futurorum, 

Christus fmis promissorum, 20 

Qui consummat omnia. 

Christi sanguis igneam 

Hebetavit rhomphseam, 

Amota custodia. 

Puer, nostri forma risus, 35 

Pro quo vervex est occisus, 
Vitse signat gaudium. 

filii Israel Pharaoni, eo quod lutum inquinat, luxuriam designat. 
Palea, eo quod levis est, et cito transvolat, vanam gloriam signi- 
ficat. Later quoque, qui de molli terra confectus, per decoctionem 
ignis durescit, humani cordis duritiam, per longam sive concupis- 
centiae, sive libidinis, aut avaritias consuetudinem decoctam ostendit. 

15. Cf. Ps. cxvii. 24 (Vulg.). 

19 — 21. Cf. Heb. x. 1 ; Col. ii. 17 ; Rom. x. 4 ; 2 Cor. i. 20. 

25. risus] Daniel has made this verse unintelligible, printing 
visus, whether by mistake, or intending a correction. The emen- 
dation, if such, and no mere error of the press, rests on ignorance 
of that ever-recurring thought in early and medieval theology, of 
Christ as our Isaac, in that He made us to laugh, and thus, our 
laughter, with allusion to Gen. xxi. 6 (Vulg.) : Risum fecit mihi 
Deus : quicumque audierit, corridebit mihi. Thus Ambrose (De 
Isaac et Animd, c. 1): Ipso nomine gratiam signat, Isaac etenim 
risus Latine significatur, risus autem insigne laetitiae est. Quis 
autem ignorat quod is universorum lsetitia sit, qui mortis formido- 


Joseph exit de cisterna, 

Christus redit ad superna 

Post mortis supplicium. 30 

Hic dracones Pharaonis 

Draco vorat, a draconis 

Immunis malitia, 

Quos ignitus vulnerat, 

Hos serpentis liberat 35 

^Enei praesentia. 

Anguem forat in maxilla 
Christus, hamus et armilla \ 

losse vel pavore compresso, factus omnibus est remissio peccatorum? 
That the thought was a familiar one with our poet we have proof 
in another poem of his, in which he expresses himself thus : 

Prole sera tandem fceta, 
Anus Sara ridet laeta, 
Nostrum lactans Gaudium. 

The use of fontia here as =fignra, rviros, is frequent ; thus Hugh of 
St. Victor : Melchisedek, qui est forma Christi. 

31 — 33. Cf. Exod. vii. 10—12. 

38. hamns et a?-??ii//a] Cf. Job xl. 20, 21 (Vulg.) ; xli. 1, 2, 
(E.V.), where the Lord asks Job, An extrahere poteris Leviathan 
hamo, aut arrhilla perforabis maxillam ejus ? This question, by the 
help of Isai. xxvii. 1 (' Leviathan, that crooked serpent ') was 
mystically interpreted, Wilt thou dare to contend with Satan and 
the powers of spiritual wickedness (cf. Jerome on Isai. xxvii. 1) ? 
But this, which a mortal man like Job could not do, Christ did. 
He did ' draw out Leviathan with a hook.' It is a favourite thought 
with the old Fathers, that Christ's humanity was as the bait which 
Satan seized, not perceiving the hook for his jaws, which lay 
beneath, in Christ's latent Divinity. Thus Gregory the Great 
(Mor. xxxiii. 7) : In hamo ergo ejus incarnationis captus est, quia 
dum in illo appetit escam corporis, transfixus est aculeo divinitatis. 


In cavernam reguli 

Manum mittit ablactatus, 40 

Et sic fugit exturbatus 

Vetus hospes saeculi. 

Irrisores Helisaei, 

Dum conscendit domum Dei, 

Zelum calvi sentiunt. 45 

David arreptitius, 

Ibi quippe inerat humanitas, quse ad se devoratorem duceret : ibi 
divinitas quae perforaret : ibi aperta infirmitas quae provocaret : ibi 
occulta virtus, quse raptoris faucem transfigeret. In hamo igitur 
captus est, quia inde interiit unde devoravit. 

39. reguli\ Regulus, the diminutive of rex, exactly answers to 
PaviXiaKos, and to basilisk, a name we give to a serpent with crown- 
like, and so kingly, marks upon its head ; Pliny (H. JV. viii. 33) : 
Candida in capite macula, ut quodam diademate insignis ; cf. 
Gregory the Great {Mor. xv. 15) : Regulus namque serpentum rex 
dicitur. These lines must be explained by Isai. xi. 8 (Vulg.) : Et 
in cavernam reguli qui ablactatus est, manum suam mittet. Christ, 
according to a favourite interpretation, was ' the weaned child ; ' 
this evil world the cockatrice's hole into which He thrust his hand, 
dragging out Satan from his lurking-place and den. Thus Jerome 
(in loc.), and Gregory the Great (Mor. xxvi. 32). 

43 — 45- Cf. 2 Kin. ii. 23 — 25. Hugh of St. Victor : Eliseus 
interpretatur salus Dei. Huic, id est, Christo, illuserunt Judoei 
exaltato in cruce. . . . Sed postquam Christus ascendit in Bethel, 
id est, in domum Dei, in quadragesimo anno immisit duos ursos de 
filiis gentium, Vespasianum et Titum, qui crudeli strage eos dejece- 
runt. Cf. Augustine, Enarr. in Ps. xliv. in init. 

46. arreptitius\ — arreptus furore. Theword occurs in Augustine, 
De Civ. Dei, ii. 4. The allusion is to I Sam. xxi. 14, where 
instead of the Vidistis hominem insanum ? of the Vulgate, an 
older Latin Version must have had arreptitium ; as is plain from 
Augustine, Enarr. i a in Ps. xxxiii., where he expounds at length 
,the mystery of David's supposed madness, and of the prophecy 


Hircus emissarius, 
Et passer effugiunt. 

In maxilla mille sternit, 

Et de tribu sua spernit 50 

Samson matrimonium : 

Samson Gazae seras pandit, 

Et asportans portas scandit 

Montis supercilium. 

Sic de Juda Leo fortis, 55 

Fractis portis dirae mortis, 

Die surgit tertia. 

Rugiente voce Patris, 

Ad supernae sinum matris 

Tot revexit spolia. 60 

which vvas herein of Christ, of whom the people said, * He is 
mad, and hath a devil.' David's escape from the presence of 
Achish represents to him Christ's escape at His resurrection from 
the Jews. 

48. Et passer\ The allusion is not to Ps. xi. 1 : Transmigra in 
montem sicut passer (Daniel) ; but to Lev. xiv. 49 — 53. 

49—51. Cf. Judg. xv. 15; xiv. 1—3. 

52. Gazce seras] Judg. xvi. 2, 3. Thus Hugh of St. Victor : 
Samson apportans portas Gazae ascendit montis supercilium, et 
Christus, fractis portis inferni, ascendit in caslum. The typical 
character of Samson's feat is brought out at length and with admi- 
rable skill by Gregory the Great (Hom. 21 in Eva?ig.), and by 
Augustine (Serm. 364). 

58. Rugiente\ I have touched already, p. 70, on the medieval 
legend of the lion's whelps born dead, but roused on the third day 
by the roar of their sire. Thus Hugh of St. Victor (De Best. ii. 1): 
Cum leaena parit, suos catulos mortuos parit, et ita custodit tribus 
diebus, donec veniens pater eorum in faciem eorum exhalet, ut 


Cetus Jonam fugitivum, 

Veri Jonae signativum, 

Post tres dies reddit vivum 

De ventris angustia. 

Botrus Cypri reflorescit, 65 

Dilatatur et excrescit : 

Synagogae flos marcescit, 

Et floret Ecclesia. 

Mors et vita conflixere, 

Resurrexit Christus vere, 70 

Et cum Christo surrexere 

Multi testes glorise. 

Mane novum, mane laetum, 

Vespertinum tergat fletum ; 

vivificentur. Sic omnipotens Pater Filium suum tertia die susci- 
tavit a mortuis. And Hildebert (De Leone) : 

Natus non vigilat dum sol se tertio gyrat, 
Sed dans rugitum pater ejus suscitat illum : 
Tunc quasi vivescit, tunc sensus quinque capescit ; 
Et quotiens dormit sua nunquam lumina claudit. 

This last line expresses another belief, namely, that the lion slept 
with its eyes open : these open eyes being an emblem of that divine 
life of Christ which ran uninterrupted through the three days' sleep 
of his body in the grave. Cf. Cant. v. 2, often quoted in this 
sense : ' I sleep, but my heart waketh.' — It need hardly be said that 
the mater (ver. 59) is the New Jerusalem, * the 7?iother of us all.' 

65. Botrus Cypri\ Cf. Cant. i. 13 (Vulg.), i. 14 (E. V.): Botrus 
Cypri dilectus mihi, in vineis Engaddi ; on which Bernard {Iu 
Cant, Serm. 44) with allusion to the verse preceding (' A bundle of 
myrrh is my beloved unto me ') : Dominus meus Jesus myrrha mihi 
in morte, botrus in resurrectione. 

72. Cf. Matt. xxvii. 52. 

73, 74. The allusion is to Ps. xxix. 6 (Vulg.) xxx. 5 (E.V.) 


Quia vita vicit letum, 75 

Tempus est laetitiae. 

Jesu victor, Jesu vita, 

Jesu, vitse via trita, 

Cujus morte mors sopita, 

Ad paschalem nos invita 80 

Mensam cum fiducia. 

Vive panis, vivax unda, 

Vera vitis et fecunda, 

Tu nos pasce, tu nos munda, 

Ut a morte nos secunda 85 

Tua salvet gratia. 

Ad vesperum demorabitur fletus, et ad matutinum lsetitia ; words 
often regarded as a prophecy of Him who turned by his resurrection 
the night of sorrow into the morning of joy. Thus Jerome : Ad 
vesperum demorabitur fletus, quia passo et sepulto Domino Apostoli 
et mulieres in fletu et gemitu demorabantur. Et ad matutinum 
laetitia, quia mane [cf. Marc. xvi. 9] venientes ad sepulcrum gloriam 
resurrectionis ab angelis acceperunt. And compare Augustine (in 
loc), who carries on his thought to yet another morning of joy, 
after a yet longer night of weeping : Matutinum, quo exsultatio 
resurrectionis futura est, quse in matutina Domini resurrectione pras- 



PORTAS vestras asternales, 
Triumphales, principales, 
Angeli, attollite. 
Eja, tollite actutum, 
Venit Dominus virtutum, 
Rex aeternae gloriae. 

Venis totus laetabundus, 
Candidus et rubicundus, 

XXXIV. Comer, Promp. Devot p. 788. The hymnology of 
the Ascension is poor, and that, so far as I know, throughout the 
whole of Christendom. Luis de Leon's grand poem, 
Y dexas, Pastor santo, 
Tu grey en este valle hondo oscuro? 

must not be urged as an exception so far as the Spanish Church is 
concerned, being, as it is, an ode, and not a hymn. Even the ■ 
German Protestant hymn-book, so incomparably rich in Passion and 
Resurrection and Pentecost hymns, is singularly ill-furnished with 
these. It is the same with the Latin, which does not possess a 
single first-rate hymn on the Ascension. At the same time the 
following stanzas, which strangely enough have never found their 
way into any modern collection, have real merit. 

I — 6. Cf. Ps. xxiii. 9, 10 (Vulg.): Attollite portas principes 
vestras, et elevamini, portas seternales : et introibit rex gloriae. 
Quis est iste rex gloriae ? Dominus virtutum, ipse est rex gloriae. 

8. Cf. Cant. v. 10 (Vulg.): Dilectus meus candidus et rubi- 
cundus. A few words from Richard of St. Victor (in Cant. c. 36) 
will shew in what sense the epithets were continually applied to the 


Tinctis clarus vestibus. 

Nova gloriosus stola, 10 

Gradiens virtute sola, 

Multis cinctus millibus. 

Solus erat in egressu, 

Sed ingentem in regressu 

Affert multitudinem. 15 

Fructum suae passionis, 

Testem resurrectionis, 

Novam caeli segetem. 

Eja, jubilate Deo, 

Jacent hostes, vicit leo, 20 

Vicit semen Abrahae. 

Jam ruinae replebuntur, 

Caeli cives augebuntur, 

Salvabuntur animae. 

Regnet Christus triumphator, 25 

Hominumque liberator, 

Rex misericordiae : 

Princeps pacis, Deus fortis, 

Vitae dator, victor mortis, 

Laus caelestis curiae. 30 

Lord : Candidus, quia immunis est ab omni peccato ; et rubicundus, 
quia in Passione sanguine suo est perfusus. 

9 — n. Cf. Isai. lxiii. 1 (Vulg.): Quis est iste, quivenit de Edom, 
tinctis vestibus de Bosra, iste formosus in stola sua, gradiens in 
multitudine fortitudinis suae ? 

13. Cf. Rev. xix. 14. 

20. vicit led\ Cf. Rev. v. 5 (Vulg.). 


Tu, qui caelum reserasti, 

Et in illo prseparasti 

Locum tuis famulis, 

Fac me tibi famulari, 

Et te piis venerari 35 

Hic in terra jubilis ; 

Ut post actum vitae cursum, 

Ego quoque scandens sursum 

Te videre valeam, 

Juxta Patrem considentem, 40 

Triumphantem et regentem 

Omnia per gloriam. 

32, 33- Cf. M n xiv - 3- 

42. I have been unable to praise very highly the hymns on the 
Ascension. I must not however leave unsaid that one of these, 
first published by Dr. Neale (Ecclesivlogist, Feb. 1854), yields the 
following noble stanzas : 

Intrat tabernaculum Spiritus et pallium. 

Moyses, et populum Alta Christus dum conscendit, 

Trahit ad spectaculum Servis suis mnas appendit 

Tantse virtus rei : Gratiarum omnium. 

Stant suspensis vultibus, 

Intendentes nubibus Transit Jacob hunc Jordanem, 

Jesum subducentibus, Luctum gerens non inanem, 

Viri Galilcei. Crucis usus baculo. 

Redit turmis cum duabus, 

Dum Elias sublevatur, Angelis et animabus, 

Elisaeo duplex datur Et thesauri sacculo. 

In the last line I have ventured to substitute sacculo for sceculo ; 
though even so, not perfectly sure of what in this line the author^s 
intention is. 



VENI, Creator Spiritus, 
Spiritus recreator, 
Tu dans, tu datus caelitus, 
Tu donum, tu donator : 
Tu lex, tu digitus, 
Alens et alitus, 
Spirans et spiritus, 
Spiratus et spirator. 

XXXV. Flacius Illyricus, Poemm. de Corrupto Ecclesice Statu, 
p. 66. 

4. Tu donuni\ Medieval mythology made much of the term 
donum, as a nomen proprium of the third Person of the Holy 
Trinity. He was not a gift, but the Gift, of God, in so high and 
exclusive a sense, that the term competed only to Him, and thus 
became His proper name. See an interesting discussion by Aquinas 
(Summ. Theol., pars i a , Qu. 38) : Spiritui S. donum est proprium 
nomen, et personale. But this application of the term donum Dei 
is indeed as old as Augustine (Enchir. 12). 

5. lex\ Rex in the volume of Flacius Illyricus, where only I 
have seen this hymn ; yet I cannot doubt that lex is the right read- 
ing. In the two preceding and two following lines there is an 
evident antithesis, and plainly one intended also here ; but what 
such would there be between rex and digitus ? not to say that rex 
is a title nowhere specially applied to the Holy Spirit. But the 
antithesis comes excellently out when we read : Tu lex, tu digitus : 
' Thou the law, the living law, and the finger which writes that 
law,' — with allusion to such promises as that contained Heb. 
viii. 10. 



Tu septiformis gratiae 

Dans septiforme donum, 10 

Virtutis septifariae, 

Septem petitionum. 

Tu nix non defluens, 

Ignis non destruens, 

Pugil non metuens, 15 

Propinator sermonum. 

Ergo accende sensibus, 

Tu, te, lumen et flamen, 

Tu te inspira cordibus, 

Qui es vitae spiramen. 20 

Tu sol, tu radius, 

Mittens et nuncius, 

Persona tertius, 

Salva nos. Amen. 

9 — 12. We find continually in medieval theology the sevenfold 
grace of the Holy Spirit (Isai. xi. 2) brought as here into connec- 
tion with the seven beatitudes (the virtus septi/aria), and with the 
seven petitions of the Lord's Prayer. Thus Gregory the Great, 
Mor. xxxv. 15 ; in Ezek. Hom. 2. 6, 7 ; and Anselm, in a sermon 
on the Beatitudes (Hom. 2) : Superna Gratia saluti nostrae providens 
orationem nobis contulit, in qua septiformi prece Spiritum septi- 
formem possemus impetrare ; ut suffragio gratiae septiformis septem 
supradictas virtutes assequamur : et per eas ad beatitudinem per- 
tingere mereamur. So too Hugh of St. Victor : Septem ergo 
petitiones in Dominica Oratione ponuntur, ut septem dona mere- 
amur Spiritus Sancti, quibus recipiamus septem virtutes, per quas, 
a septem vitiis liberati, ad septem perveniamus beatitudines. 

16, Propinatur sermonum] Cf. Luke xxi. 15. 



SIMPLEX in essentia, 
Septiformis gratia, 
Nos illustret Spiritus : 
Cordis lustret tenebras, 
Et carnis illecebras, 
Lux emissa caelitus. 

Lex praecessit in figura, 
Lex pcenalis, lex obscura, 

XXXVI. Clichtoveus, Elucidat. Eccles. p. 178 ; Gautier, Adam 
de S. Victor, vol. i. p. 1 24. 

7 — 28. These stanzas are in the true spirit of St. Paul and St. 
Augustine, and hardly to be fully understood without reference to 
the writings of the latter, above all to his anti-pelagian tracts ; 
wherein he continually contrasts, as Adam does here, the killing 
letter of the Old, and the quickening spirit of the New, Covenant. 
A few chapters of his treatise, De Spiritu et Litterd, c. 13 — 17, 
would furnish the best commentary on these lines which could be 
found. Their first point is the contrast between the giving of the 
law de monte, and of the Spirit in ccenaculo. In other words, there 
was a God far off who uttered His voice, and that which He spake 
only set men further from Him (Exod. xx. 18), while here it was a 
God coming into the very midst of them, yea, into that upper- 
chamber itself. Thus Augustine, c. 17: In hac mirabili congra- 
entia illud certe plurimum distat, quod ibi populus accedere ad 
locum ubi lex dabatur, horrendo terrore prohibetur : hic autem in 
eos supervenit Spiritus Sanctus, qui eum promissum expectantes in 

N 2 



Lumen evangelicum. 
Spiritalis intellectus, 
Literali fronde tectus, 
Prodeat in publicum. 

Lex de monte populo, 
Paucis in ccenaculo 
Nova datur gratia : 
Situs docet nos locorum 
Praeceptorum vel donorum 
Quae sit eminentia. 



unum fuerant congregati. This, the poet adds, still in the spint of 
his great teacher, shews whether are better, preccpts or gifts (ver. 
17), the precepts of the old law, or the gifts of the new — a God 
requiring as of old, or a God giving as now — requiring indeed still, 
but only what He Himself has first given. The fearful accompani- 
ments of the law's promulgation, he goes on to say (ver. 19 — 24), 
were but the outward clothing of the eternal truth, 'The law 
worketh wrath.' A law of fear, it may restrain acts of sin, the 
illicita, but cannot beget that love which alone is the fulnlling of 
the commandment (ver. 25 — 28). That can only be through the 
Holy Ghost, whose descent we on this day commemorate. 

13 — 28. A few stanzas from one of Abelard's recently discovered 
hymns will shew how entirely Adam of St. Victor is here falling in 
'with the typical interpretation of his time : 

Tradente legem Domino 
Mons tremens metum attulit ; 
Spiritus in ccenaculo 
Susceptus illum abstulit, 

Micabant illic fulgura, 
Mons caligabat fumigans ; 
Hic est flamma multifida, 
Non urens, sed illuminans. 

Horrendae sonum buccince 
Pavebat illic populus ; 
Verbum intelligentiae 
Sonus hic fuit Spiritus. 

Fumus illic caliginem 
Obscurae signat literae ; 
Splendentis ignis speciem 
Clare signum hic accipe. 


Ignis, clangor buccinae, 

Fragor cum caligine, 4 2o 

Lampadum discursio, 

Terrorem incutiunt ; 

Nec amorem nutriunt, 

Quem effudit unctio. 

Sic in Sina lex divina 25 

Reis est imposita, 

Lex timoris, non amoris, 

Puniens illicita. 

Ecce patres praeelecti 

Di recentes sunt effecti, 30 

Culpae solvunt vincula : 

Pluunt verbo, tonant minis, 

Novis linguis et doctrinis 

Consonant miracula. 

19, 20. Cf. Exod. xix. 16 (Vulg.). 

21. Lampadum~\ Cf. Exod. xx. 18 (Vulg.): Cunctus autem 
populus videbat voces et lampades. This word, signifying, as it 
may, the bickering meteoric flames, perhaps better expresses what 
is meant than the ' lightnings, ' by which the E. V. has rendered 
the original. 

30. Di recentes\ Such the Apostles might be said to have been 
made, when attributes properly divine, such as the forgiveness of 
sins, the infliction of such punishments as that on Ananias and 
Sapphira (Acts v. 5, 10), were made over to them. 

32. Pluimt-—tonanf\ Augustine (Enarr. in Ps. lxxxviii. 7) : 
Praedicatores nubes esse dictas ex illa prophetia intelligimus, ubi 
Deus iratus vinese suae dicit, Mandabo nubibus meis ne pluant super 
eam imbrem, Isai. v. 6 : which words Augustine found fulfilled 
when the Apostles said, ' Lo, we turn to the Gentiles ' (Acts xiii. 
46) ; cf. Gregory the Great, Mor. xxviL 24. And thus in another 


Exhibentes aegris curam, 35 

Morbum damnant, non naturam ; 

Persequentes scelera, 

Reos premunt et castigant ; 

Modo solvunt, modo ligant, 

Potestate libera. 40 

Typum gerit jubilaei 

Dies iste, si diei 

Requiris mysteria, 

In quo tribus millibus 

Ad fidem currentibus 45 

Pullulat Ecclesia. 

hymn on St. Peter and St. Paul, Adam of St. Victor has these 
noble stanzas : 

Hi sunt nubes coruscantes, Ipsi montes appellantur, 

Terram cordis irrigantes Ipsi prius illustrantur 

Nunc rore, nunc pluvia : Veri Solis lumine. 

Hi prascones novse legis, Mira virtus est eorum, 

Et ductores novi gregis Firmamenti vel caelorum 

Ad Christi prsesepia. Designantur nomine. 

We may compare some lines of Damiani : 

Paule, doctor egregie, Nobis potenter intona, 

Tuba clangens Ecclesise, Ruraque cordis irriga ; 

Nubes volans ac tonitmm Caelestis imbre gratia* 

Per amplum mundi circulum : Mentes virescant aridae. 

41. jnbilcEi\ The poet has a true insight into the typical signifi- 
cance of the year of jubilee, the great Pentecostal year, the year of 
restitution and restoration, in which every man came to his own, all 
yokes were broken, and all which any Israelite had forfeited and 
alienated, was given back to him once more (Lev. xxv.). He sees 
in it rightly a type and a prophecy of that great epoch of recreation 
and restoration which at Pentecost began. Durandus {Rational. vi. 


Jubilseus est vocatus 

Vel dimittens vel mutatus, 

Ad priores vocans status 

Res distractas libere. 50 

Nos distractos sub peccatis 

Liberet lex caritatis, 

Et perfectae libertatis 

Dignos reddat munere. 

107) : Similiter in diebus Pentecostes hunc numerum post Domini 
resurrectionem observamus, suscipientes advenientem in nos Spiritus 
Sancti gratiam, per quem efficimur filii Dei, et virtutum possessio 
nobis restituitur, et remissa culpa, et totius debiti chirographo 
evacuato, ab omni servitutis nexu liberi efficimur. 

47, 48. Vel dimittens vel mutatus] These etymologies of 'jubilee, ' 
that it is so called either as the year of remission (dimittens) or the 
year when all things are changediox the better [mutatus), have long 
been given up. 



SPIRITUS Sancte, pie Paraclite, 
Amor Patris et Filii, nexus gignentis et geniti, 
Utriusque bonitas et caritas, et amborum essentiae pu- 

Benignitas, suavitas, jocunditas, 
Vinculum nectens Deum homini, virtus adunans homi- 

nem Numini; 5 

Tibi soli digno coli cum Patre Filioque 
Jugis cultus, honor multus sit semper procedenti ab 

Tu mitis et hilaris, amabilis, laudabilis, 
Vanitatis mundator, munditiae amator, 
Vox suavis exulum mcerentium, melodia civium gau- 

dentium, 10 

Istis solamen ne desperent de te, 
Istis juvamen ut suspirent ad te; 
Consolator piorum, inspirator bonorum, consiliator moes- 

Purificator errorum, eruditor ignotorum, declarator per- 

plexorum, [15 

Debilem erigens, devium colligens, errantem corrigens, 
Sustines labantem, promoves conantem, perficis aman- 

tem ; 

XXXVII. Hildeberti et Marbodi Opp. p. 1340. 


Perfectum educis de lacu faecis et miseriae, 

Deducis per semitam pacis et laetitiae, 

Inducis sub nube in aulam sapientiae. 

Fundamentum sanctitatis, alimentum castitatis, 20 

Ornamentum lenitatis, lenimentum paupertatis, 

Supplementum largitatis, munimentum probitatis, 

Miserorum refugium, captivorum suffragium, 

Illis aptissimus, istis promptissimus, 

Spiritus veritatis, nodus fraternitatis, 25 

Ab eodem missus a quo et promissus, 

Tu crederis omnium judex qui crederis omnium opifex; 

Honestans bene meritos praemio, 

Onustans immeritos supplicio, 

Spiras ubi vis et quando vis; doces quos vis et quan- 

tum vis : 30 

Imples et instruis certos in dubiis, 
Firmas in subitis, regis in licitis : 
Tu ordo decorans omnia, decor ordinans et ornans 

Dicta, facta, cogitata, 

Dicta veritate, facta honestate, cogitata puritate \ 35 
Donum bonum, Bonum perfectum, 
Dans intellectum, dans et affectum, 
Dirigens rectum, formans affectum, firmans provectum. 
Et ad portas Paradisi coronans dilectum. 



VENI, Creator Spiritus, 
Mentes tuorum visita, 
Imple superna gratia 
Quse tu creasti pectora. 

Qui Paraclitus diceris, 5 

Altissimi donum Dei, 
Fons vivus, ignis, caritas, 
Et spiritalis unctio. 

Tu septiformis munere, 

Dextrae Dei tu digitus, 10 

XXXVIII. Clichtoveus, Elucidat. Eccles. p. 41 ; Cassander, 
Hymni Ecclesiastici (Opp. Paris, 1616), p. 242 ; Mone, Hymni 
Lat. Med. /Evi, vol. i. p. 241. — This hymn, of which the author- 
ship is popularly ascribed to Charlemagne, but which is certainly 
older, has had always attributed to it more than an ordinary worth 
and dignity. Such our Church has recognized and allowed, when, 
dismissing every other hymn, she has yet retained this in the offices 
for the ordering of priests, and the consecrating of bishops. It 
was also in old time habitually used, and the use in great part still 
survives, on all other occasions of a more than common solemnity, 
as at the coronation of kings, the celebration of synods, and, in 
the Romish Cruirch, at the creation of Popes, and the translation of 
the relics of saints. We have translations of it by Dryden and 
William Hammond. 

7, 8. Fo?is vivus] Cf. John vii. 38, 39 ; — -ignis, cf. Luke xii. 49 ; 
— caritas, cf. Rom. v. 5 ; — unctio, cf. I John ii. 20, 27. 

10. Dei tu digitus] The title digitus Dei, so often given to the 
Holy Ghost, rests originally on a comparison of Luke xi. 20, Si 


Tu rite promissum Patris, 
Sermone ditans guttura. 

Accende lumen sensibus, 

Infunde amorem cordibus, 

Infirma nostri corporis 15 

Virtute firmans perpeti. 

Hostem repellas longius, 

Pacemque dones protinus, 

Ductore sic te praevio 

Vitemus omne noxium. 20 

Da gaudiorum praemia, 
Da gratiarum numera, 
Dissolve litis vincula, 
Adstringe pacis fcedera. 

dlgito Dei ejicio daemonia, with Matt. xii. 28, Si autem ego in Spiritu 
Dei ejicio dsemonia, where evidently the digitus Dei of Luke is the 
Spiritns Dei of Matthew. Cf. Augustine, Enarr. 2° in Ps. xc. 1 1 ; 
who also elsewhere unfolds a further fltness in this appellation : 
Quia per Spiritum S. dona Dei sanctis dividuntur, ut cum diversa 
possint, non tamen discedant a concordia caritatis, in digitis autem 
maxime apparet quoedam divisio, nec tamen ab unitate prsecisio, 
propterea Spiritus S. appellatus est digitus Dei : and again, Enarr. 
in Ps. cxliii. I : In digitis agnoscimus divisionem operationis, et 
tamen radicem unitatis ; so also Qucest. Evang. ii. 17. Elsewhere 
he has another explanation of the name (De Civ. Dei 9 xvi. 43) : 
Spiritus S. dictus est in Evangelio digitus Dei, ut recordationem 
nostram in primi preefigurati facti memoriam revocaret, quia et 
legis illae tabulse digito Dei scriptae referuntur. Jerome gathers 
from this title an intimation of the bfxoovaia of the Spirit with the 
Father and the Son (In Matt. xii. ) : Si igitur manus et brachium 
Dei Filius est, et digitus ejus Spiritus Sanctus, Patris et Filii et 
Spiritus Sancti una substantia est. Gregory of Nazianzum draws 
the same conclusion. 


Per te sciamus, da, Patrem, 25 

Noscamus atque Filium, 
Te utriusque Spiritum 
Credamus omni tempore. 

Sit laus Patri cum Filio, 

Sancto simul Paraclito, 30 

Nobisque mittat Filius 

Charisma Sancti Spiritus. 



QUI procedis ab utroque, 
Genitore, Genitoque, 
Pariter, Paraclite, 
Redde linguas eloquentes, 
Fac ferventes in te mentes 5 

Flamma tua divite. 

Amor Patris Filiique, 

Par amborum, ut utrique 

Compar et consimilis : 

Cuncta reples, cuncta foves, 10 

Astra regis, caelum moves, 

Permanens immobilis. 

Lumen clarum, lumen carum, 

Internarum tenebrarum, 

Efifugas caliginem. 15 

XXXIX. Clichtoveus, Elucidat. Eccles. p. 179; Daniel, Thes, 
Hyvinol. vol. ii. p. 73 ; Gautier, Adam de S. Victor, vol. i. p. 115. 
— In Horst's Paradisus Animce, Sect. I, this hymn and the follow- 
ing are huddled together, the two in one, and with grossest depar- 
tures from the authentic text. Under this tasteless process the 
whole beauty of both, each complete in itself, and moving in its 
own sphere of thought and feeling, has quite disappeared. 


Per te mundi sunt mundati; 
Tu peccatum et peccati 
Destruis rubiginem. 

Veritatem notam facis, 

Et ostendis viam pacis 20 

Et iter justitiae. 

Perversorum corda vitas, 

Et bonorum corda ditas 

Munere scientiae. 

Te docente nil obscurum, ^5 

Te praesente nil impurum; 

Sub tua praesentia 

Gloriatur mens jucunda, 

Per te laeta, per te munda 

Gaudet conscientia. 30 

Quando venis, corda lenis, 

Quando subis, atrae nubis 

Effugit obscuritas. 

Sacer ignis, pectus ignis 

Non comburis, sed a curis 35 

Purgas, quando visitas. 

Mentes prius imperitas, 

Et sopitas et oblitas, 

Erudis et excitas. 

Foves linguas, formas sonum, 40 

Cor ad bonum facit pronum 

A te data caritas. 

O juvamen oppressorum, 
O solamen miserorum, 


Pauperum refugium, 45 

Da contemptum terrenorum, 
Ad amorem supernorum 
Trahe desiderium ; 

Consolator et fundator, 

Habitator et amator 50 

Cordium humilium, 

Pelle mala, terge sordes, 

Et discordes fac concordes, 

Et affer praesidium. 

Tu qui quondam visitasti, 55 

Docuisti, confirmasti 

Timentes discipulos, 

Visitare nos digneris, 

Nos, si placet, consoleris, 

Et credentes populos. 60 

Par majestas personarum, 

Par potestas est earum, 

Et communis Deitas. 

Tu procedens a duobus, 

Coaequalis es ambobus, 65 

In nullo disparitas. 

Quia tantus es et talis 

Quantus Pater est et qualis, 

Servorum humilitas 

Deo Patri, Filioque 70 

Redemptori, tibi quoque 

Laudes reddat debitas, 




LUX jucunda, lux insignis, 
Qua de throno missus ignis 
In Christi discipulos, 
Corda replet, linguas ditat, 
Ad concordes nos invitat 
Linguse, cordis, modulos. 

Christus misit quod promisit, 
Pignus sponsse quam revisit 

XL. Clichtoveus, Elucidat. Eccles. p. 177 ; Daniel, TTies. 
Hymnol. vol. ii. p. 71 ; Gautier, Adam de S. Vutor, vol. i. p. 107. 
— If this were not the third of Adam of St. Victor^s Pentecostal 
hymns which I have quoted, I should be tempted to make room for 
a very grand one, Veni^ summe Cowo/ator, published by Gautier 
(vol. i. p. 135) for the first time. 

2. missus ignis] Durandus {Rational. vi. 107) tells us that it was 
customary to scatter fire from on high in the church on the day of 
Pentecost ; and he gives the explanation of this and other similar 
practices, as the letting loose of doves : Tunc enim ex alto ignis 
projicitur, quia Spiritus Sanctus descendit in discipulos in igneis 
linguis. He omits reference to another passage without which this 
custom would scarcely have found place, and which is necessary to 
complete the explanation — I mean Rev. viii. 5 (Vulg.) : Et accepit 
angelus thuribulum, et implevit illud de igne altaris [altare aureum 
quod est ante thronum Dei, ver. 3], et misit in terram ; et facta 
sunt tonitrua, et voces, et fulgura, et terraemotus magnus. 


Die quinquagesima. 

Post dulcorem melleum 10 

Petra fudit oleum, 

Petra jam firmissima. 

In tabellis saxeis, 

Non in linguis igneis 

Lex de monte populo : 15 

Paucis cordis novitas 

Et linguarum unitas 

Datur in ccenaculo. 

O quam felix, quam festiva 

Dies, in qua primitiva 20 

Fundatur Ecclesia. 

Vivse sunt primitiae 

10 — 12. Daniel, who remarks here, Petms Apostolus, cujus 
nomen die Pentecostes et omen habebat, confertur cum petra melli- 
flua in deserto ; has missed the meaning, doing equal wrong to the 
poetry and the theology of the stanza. The poet has Deut. xxxii. 
1 3 in his eye, * He made him to suck honey out of the rock, and 
oil out of the flinty rock. This will be abundantly clear, when the 
words of the Vulgate are quoted : Suxerunt mel de petra, et oleum 
de firmd petra ; with the comment of Gregory the Great (Hom. 26 
in Evang.) : Mel de petra, suxerunt, qui Redemptoris nostri facta et 
miracula viderunt. Oleum vero de firma petra suxerunt ; quia 
[qui ?] effusione Sancti Spiritus post resurrectionem ejus ungi 
meruerunt. Quasi ergo in firma petra mel dedit, quando adhuc 
mortalis Dominus miraculorum suomm dulcedinem discipuiis osten- 
dit. Sed firma petra oleum fudit ; quia post resurrectionem suam 
factus jam impassibilis, per afflationem Spiritus donum sanctse 
unctionis emanavit. Cf. Hugh of St. Victor, De Clanstro Animce, 
iii. 8. It may be that the poet had also in his eye as a secondary 
allusion, Ps. Ixxx. 17 (Vulg.): Et de petra melle saturavit eos. 



Nascentis Ecclesise, 
Tria primum millia. 

Panes legis primitivi, 25 

Sub una sunt adoptivi 

Fide duo populi. 

Se duobus interjecit, 

Sicque duos unum fecit 

Lapis, caput anguli. 30 

Utres novi, non vestusti, 

Sunt capaces novi musti : 

25. Panes legis~\ On the day of Pentecost tivo loaves, nrstfruits 
of the completed harvest, were offered to the Lord (Lev. xviii. 16, 
17). Why two, has often been enquired. The medieval inter- 
preters answered, that by this twofold offering it was indicated that 
the Church, which was founded and presented in its living firstfruits 
to the Lord on the day of Pentecost, should consist alike of Gentile 
and of Jew ; to this interpretation we have evident allusion here. 
See Bahr, Symb. d. Mos. Cult. vol. ii. p. 650 ; and Iken, De 
diwbus Ptmibus Penteeostes. 

31. non vetusti] The Jews were the oldvessels, or old skins, 
which would not receive the mustum, or new wine of the Spirit 
(Matt. ix. 1 7) ; and they signally shewed themselves such on the 
day of Pentecost, when they so misunderstood the thing which was 
done, as to say mocking, c These men are full of new wine ' (Acts 
ii. 13). And yet these mocking words had their truth ; for the 
Apostles were as utres novi, in which the new wine of the Spirit ivas 
being poured, and there is, as St. Paul teaches, a 7r\r>pova8aL eV 
n>et^iaTi, which is the spiritual counterpart to the carnal /j.c6vo~K€<TdaL 
oLutf) (Ephes. v. 18). Thus Augustine {Senn. 267) ; Utres novi 
erant ; vinum novum de cselo expectabatur, et venit ; jam enim 
fuerat magnus ille Botrus calcatus et glorificatus : and again Serm. 
26 : Utres novos utres veteres mirabantur, et calumniando nec in- 
novabantur, nec implebantur. 


Vasa parat vidua; 

Liquorem dat Elisseus; 

Nobis sacrum rorem Deus, 35 

Si corda sint congrua. 

Non hoc musto vel liquore, 

Non hoc sumus digni rore, 

Si discordes moribns : 

In obscuris vel divisis 40 

Non potest haec paraclisis 

Habitare cordibus. 

Consolator alme, verii, 

Linguas rege, corda leni; 

Nihil fellis aut veneni 45 

Sub tua presentia. 

Nil jucundum, nil amoenum, 

Nil salubre, nil serenum, 

Nihil dulce, nihil plenum, 

Nisi tua gratia. 50 

Tu es lumen et unguentum, 
Tu caeleste condimentum, 
Aquae ditans elementum, 
Virtute mysterii. 

33> 34- Cf. 2 Kin. iv. 1 — 6. The Church is the widow, in 
danger of coming, unless helped from above, to uttermost poverty, 
of losing her very sons. All that she can do is to prepare and 
bring the * vessels ' of empty hearts, for Christ, the true Elisha, to 
till them with that oil from above, which is only stayed when there 
is no more room in human hearts to receive it (ver. 6). 

53, 54. Not one, but two broodings of the Holy Ghost over the 
waters, at the first creation (Gen. i. 2), and at the second, are here 
o 2 


Nova facti creatura, 55 

Te laudamus mente pura, 
Gratiae nunc, sed natura. 
Prius irae nlii. 

Tu qui dator es et donum, 

Tu qui condis omne bonum, 60 

Cor ad laudem redde pronum, 

Nostrae linguae formans sonum 

In tua praeconia. 

Tu purga nos a peccatis, 

Auctor ipse puritatis, 65 

Et in Christo renovatis 

Da perfectae novitatis 

Plena nobis gaudia. 

referred to ; for the Church has ever loved to contemplate them in 
their relation one with the other. Thus Tertullian, on our Lord's 
Baptism (De Bapt. c. 8) : Tunc ille Sanctissimus Spiritus super 
baptismi aquas, tanquam pristinam sedem recognoscens, acquiescit. 
Cf. Ambrose, De Spir. Sanct. i. 7, and in a sequence appointed for 
chanting at Pentecost, these lines occur : — 

Quando machinam per Verbum suum fecit Deus, caeli, terra?, 

Tu super aquas foturus eas, numen tuum expandisti, Spiritus : 
Tu animabus vivificandis aquas fcecundas. — (Clichtoveus, p. 175.) 



THE loveliest, — for however not the grandest, such 
we call it, — of all the hymns in the whole circle of 
Latin sacred poetry, has a king for its author. Robert 
the Second, son of Hugh Capet, succeeded his father on 
the throne of France in the year 997. He was singu- 
larly addicted to Church-music, which he enriched, as 
well as the hymnology, with compositions of his own, 
such as, I believe, to this day hold their place in the 
services of the Roman Catholic Church. 

Even were the story of the writer's life unknown to us, 
we should guess that the hymn which follows could only 
have been composed by one who had been acquainted 
with many sorrows, and also with many consolations. 
Nor should we err herein : for if the consolations are 
plain from the poem itself, the history of those times con- 
tains the record of the manifold sorrows, within his own 
family and without it, which were the portion of this 
meek and greatly afflicted king. Sismondi {Hist. des 
Franfats, vol. iv. p. 98 — 111) brings him very vividly 
before us in all the^ beauty of his character, and also in 
all his evident unfitness, a man of gentleness and peace, 
for contending with the men of iron by whom he was 
surrounded. He died in 1031. 



VENI, Sancte Spiritus, 
Et emitte caelitus 
Lucis tuae radium. 

Veni, pater pauperum, 
Yeni, dator munerum, 
Veni, lumen cordium: 

Consolator optime, 
Dulcis hospes animse, 
Dulce refrigerium : 

XLI. Clichtoveus, Ehtcidat. Flccles. p. 176; Daniel, Thes. 
Hymnol. vol. ii. p. 35 ; Mone, Hymni Lat. Med. sEvi, vol. i. 
p. 244. — Clichtoveus shows a just appreciation of this hymn : 
Neque satis haec oratio, mea quidem sententia, commendari potest ; 
nam omni commendatione superior est, tum ob miram ejus suavi- 
tatem cum facilitate apertissima, tum ob gratam ejus brevitatem 
cum ubertate et copia sententiarum, ut unaquaeque fere clausula 
rhythmica unam complectatur sententiam, tum denique ob con- 
cinnam ejus in contextu venustatem, qua opposita inter se aptissimo 
nexu compacta cernuntur. Crediderimque facile auctorem ipsum 
(quisquis is fuerit), cum hanc contexuit orationem, cselesti quadam 
dulcedine fuisse perfusum interius, qua, Spiritu Sancto auctore, 
tantam eructavit verbis adeo succinctis suavitatem. Some later 
writers have attributed this hymn, and, on grounds as slight, the 
Stabat Mater, to Pope Innocent the Third ; so the Biagraphie 
Universelle : but there exists no sufhcient reason for callrng in 
question the attribution which has been commonly made of it, to 
King Robert (Durandus, Rationale y iv. 22). It is translated by 
Worsley, Poems and Trans/ations, p. 193. 


In labore requies, 10 

In aestu temperies, 
In fletu solatium. 

O lux beatissima, 

Reple cordis intima 

Tuorum fidelium. 15 

Sine tuo numine 
Nihil est in homine, 
Nihil est innoxium. 

Lava quod est sordidum, 

Riga quod est aridum, 20 

Sana quod est saucium : 

Flecte quod est rigidum, 
Fove quod est languidum, 
Rege quod est devium. 

Da tuis fidelibus 25 

In te confidentibus 
Sacrum septenarium ; 

Da virtutis meritum, 

Da salutis exitum, 

Da perenne gaudium. 30 

17. Nihil\ It is difhcult not to suspect that the text is here 
corrupt, and that nihil in this verse occupies the place of some more 
appropriate word. Quidquid would make very good sense. 



EST locus ex omni medium quem credimus orbe. 
Golgotha Judaei patrio cognomine dicunt : 
Hic ego de sterili succisum robore lignum 
Plantatum memini fructus genuisse salubres : 

XLII. Fabricius, Poett. Vet, Christ. Opp. p. 302. — This grace- 
ful poem, of which I have given a translation, Poems, 1864, p. 227, 
is not Cyprian's, as is hardly needful to say ; though in time past 
sometimes attributed to him, and printed with his works. "Whose- 
ever it may be, the allegory is managed with singular skill, nor 
could one beforehand have supposed that, keeping so close to the 
one image with which he starts, and introducing no new element 
not perfectly consistent with it, the poet could have set out so 
admirably Chrisfs cross (1 — 10), his death and burial (11), his 
resurrection (12 — 14), his ascension (15 — 17), his constitution in 
the Twelve of a Church (18 — 21), the gifts of Pentecost (22 — 25), 
and the whole course of the Christian life from its initiation in 
baptism and repentance (27, 37 — 39), to its final consummation in 
glory (68). 

3. sterili robore\ Does this mean the tree of life? Early and 
medieval legends innumerable connect in one way or other the cross 
of Christ with the tree of life ; the aim of all being to shew how 
the cross, as the true lignum vitce, was fashioned from the wood of 
that tree which stood in tbe Paradise of God. The legend appears 
oftenest in this shape, namely, That Seth was sent by his dying 
father to obtain a slip of that tree ; which having by the grace 
of the angel at the gate obtained, he set it upon his father's grave, 
that is, on Golgotha, the 'place of the skull,' or spot where Adam 
was buried. It grew there from generation to generation — each 
significant implement for the kingdom of God, Moses' staff, Aaron's 
rod, the pole on which the brazen serpent was exalted, having been 


Non tamen hos illis, qui se posuere, colonis 5 

Praebuit ; externi fructus habuere beatos. 

Arboris haec species \ uno de stipite surgit, 

Et mox in geminos extendit brachia ramos : 

Sicut plena graves antennae carbasa tendunt, 

Vel cum disjunctis juga stant ad aratra juvencis. 10 

Quod tulit hoc primo, maturo semine lapsum 

Concepit tellus : mox hinc (mirabile dictu) 

Tertia lux iterum terris superisque tremendum 

Extulerat ramum, vitali fruge beatum. 

Sed bis vicenis finnatus et ille diebus 15 

Crevit in immensum ; cselumque cacumine summo 

Contigit, et tandem sanctum caput abdidit alto ; 

Dum tamen ingenti bissenos pondere ramos 

Edidit, et totum spargens porrexit in orbem : 

Gentibus ut cunctis victum vitamque perennem 20 

Praeberent, mortemque mori qui posse docerent. 

Expletis etiam mox quinquaginta diebus, 

Vertice de summo divini nectaris haustum 

Detulit in ramos caelestis spiritus aurae : 

Dulci rore graves manabant undique frondes. 25 

taken from it ; till at last, in its extreme old age, the wellnigh dead 
stock furnished the wood of passion, and thus it again became, and 
in the highest sense, the true tree of life, bearing the fruit which 
is indeed unto eternal life. This, and other forms of the same 
legend, constitute some of tlie fairest portions of what may with- 
out offence be called the Christian mythology. We find allusions 
to them in the Evangelium Nicodemi (Thilo, Codex Apocryphus, 
voL i. p. 686) ; and Calderon has wrought them up into two 
magnificent dramas, La Sibilla del Oriente, and El Arbol del viejor 

20, 21. Cf. Ezek. xlvii. 12 ; Rev. xxii. 2. 


Ecce sub ingenti ramorum tegminis umbra 
Fons erat : hic nullo casu turbante serenum 
Perspicuis illimis aquis, et gramina circum 
Fundebant laetos vario de flore colores. 
Hunc circum innumerae gentes populique coibant, 30 
Quam varii generis, sexus, aetatis, honoris, 
Innuptae, nuptaeque simul, viduaeque, nurusque, 
Infantes, puerique, viri, juvenesque, senesque : 
Hic ubi multigenis flexos incumbere pomis 
Cernebant ramos, avidis attingere dextris 35 

Gaudebant madidos caelesti nectare fructus. 
Nec prius hos poterant cupidis decerpere palmis, 
Quam lutulenta viae vestigia fceda prioris 
Detererent, corpusque pio de fonte lavarent. 
Ergo diu circum spatiantes gramine molli, 40 

Suspiciunt alta pendentes arbore fructus. 
Tum si qui ex illis delapsa putamina ramis, 
Et dulces, multo rorantes nectare, frondes 
Vescuntur, veros exoptant sumere fructus. 

Ergo ubi caelestem ceperunt ora saporem, 45 

Permutant animos, et mentes perdere avaras 
Incipiunt, dulcique hominem cognoscere sensu. 
Insolitum multis stomachum movisse saporem 
Vidimus, et fellis commotum melle venenum 
Rejecisse bonos turbata mente sapores, 50 

Aut avide sumptum non dilexisse, diuque 
Et male potatum tandem evomuisse saporem. 
Saepe quidem multi, renovatis mentibus, aegros 
Restituere animos; et quae se posse negabant, 
Pertulerant, fructumque sui cepere laboris. 55 

Multi etiam sanctos ausi contingere fontes, 


Discessere iterum subito, retroque relapsi 
Sordibus et coeno mixti volvuntur eodem. 
Multi vero bono portantes pectore, totis 
Accipiunt animis, penitusque in viscera condunt. 60 

Ergo qui sacros possunt accedere fontes, 
Septima lux illos optatas sistit ad undas, 
Tingit et in liquidis jejunos fontibus artus. 
Sic demum illuviem mentis, vitaeque prioris 
Deponunt labem, purasque a morte reducunt 65 

Illustres animas, caelique ad lumen ituras. 
Hinc iter ad ramos et dulcia poma salutis ; 
Inde iter ad cselum per ramos arboris altae ; 
Hoc lignum vitae est cunctis credentibus. Amen. 

62. Septima lux\ Forty rather than seven was the number of days 
which generally the ancient Church desired to set apart for the 
immediate preparation for baptism : yet within that forty, the last 
seven may, and would, have had an intenser solemnity, even as the 
traditio sj/mfro/i very often did not take place till the seventh day 
preceding ; thus, not till Palm Sunday, for those who should be 
baptized on Easter Eve. 




STOLA regni laureatus, 
Summi Regis est senatus 
Coetus apostolicus ; 
Cui psallant mens et ora ; 
Mentis mundae vox sonora 5 

Hymnus est angelicus. 

Hic est ordo mundi decus, 

Omnis carnis judex aequus, 

Novae petra gratiae : 

Ab seterno praeelectus, 10 

Cujus floret architectus 

Ad culmen Ecclesiae. 

XLIII. Gautier, Ada??i de S. Victor, vol. ii. p. 407. — This mag- 
nincent hymn, a glorious addition to the medieval hymnology, was 
published by Gautier for the first time. The unity which pervadcs 
the hymns of Adam of St. Victor is very worthy of remark and 
admiration. Thus he has, besides this, two others, In Co??i??nuii 
ApostoIo?-u??i. In them he traces the history of the Apostles, their 
calling, their characters, the spheres of their labour, with no 
slightest introduction of symbolism. This on the contrary deals 
with the symbolism alone, and does not once touch what would be 
to it the aiien element of history. 

1 — 3. Cf. Matt. xix. 28 ; Luke xxii. 29, 30 ; I Cor. vi. 3. 

8. jiidex] Cf. Matt. xix. 28. 

11. architcctus'] Elsewhere the Apostles are honoured with the 

DE S. AP0S70LIS 205 

Hi prasclari Nazaraei 

Bella crucis et tropaei 

Mundo narrant gloriam ; 15 

Sic dispensant verbum Dei 

Quod nox nocti, lux diei 

Indicant scientiam. 

Onus leve, jugum mite 

Proponentes, semen vitse 20 

Mundi spargunt terminis; 

Germen promit terra culta, 

Fceneratur fruge multa 

Fides Dei-hominis. 

Paranymphi novae legis 25 

Ad amplexum novi Regis 
Sponsam ducunt regiam, 

title of the ' architects ' of the Church ; as in a fine hymn addressed 
to St. Paul (Mone, vol. iii. p. 85), which commences thus : — 

Paulus, Syon architectus, 
Est a Christo praeelectus. 

Soo too St. Augustine styles the same Apostle (Ep. 185) Ecclesiae 
magnus sedificator. Here, however, it is the Architect in chief who 
manifestly is intended. 

14. tropcEi~\ See note, p. 91. 

16 — 18. It is well known that the words of the nineteenth Psalm 
(1 — 4), mainly on the strength of St. Paul's adaptation of them 
(Rom. x. 18), have constantly received a spiritual application. The 
Church is the firmament which shews the handywork of God ; in 
which day transmits to day and night to night in unbroken succes- 
sion to the end of time, and to all the world, the wondrous story of 
the glory and grace of God. 

25. Paranympht\~viol vvfjL(pcavos (Matt. ix. 15; cf. John iii. 29; 
2 Cor. xi. 2). 


Sine ruga, sine nsevo, 

Permansuram omni aevo 

Virginem Ecclesiam. 30 

Haec est virgo gignens fcetus, 

Semper nova, tamen vetus, 

Sed defectus nescia; 

Cujus thorus mens sincera, 

Cujus partus fides vera, 35 

Cujus dos est gratia. 

Hi sunt templi fundamentum, 

Vivus lapis et caementum 

Ligans aedificium. 

Hi sunt portse civitatis, 40 

Hi compago unitatis 

Israel et gentium. 

Hi triturant aream, 
Ventilantes paleam 

28. Cf. Ephes. v. 27. 

37. Cf. Ephes. ii. 20 ; Rev. xxi. 14. 

40. portce] Cf. Rev. xxi. 12 ; Ezek. xlviii. 31 — 34. Richard of 
St. Victor (Sup. Apoc. xxi. 21) : Per portas vero S. Apostolos 
intelligimus, per quorum fidem et doctrinam sanctam Civitatem 
introimus. Augustine (Euarr. in Ps. lxxxvi. 2) : Quare sunt portas 
[ Apostoli] ? Quia per ipsos introimus ad regnum Dei. Praedicant 
enim nobis. 

41, 42. Cf. Ephes. ii. 20. 

43 — 48. The treading out the corn on the barn floor, which is 
the work of oxen, is the link between the first part of this stanza 
and the last. The Apostles, the treaders out of the corn (St. Paul, 
by his quotation at 1 Tim. v. 18, of Deut. xxv. 4, justifies the 
image), from which afterwards they winnow away the chaff (cf. 
Matt. iii. 12), are prefigured by the twelve brazen oxen round the 


Ventilabri justitia; 45 

Quos designant serei 
Boves maris vitrei 
Salomonis industria. 

Patriarchae duodeni, 

Fontes aquse gustu leni, 50 

Panes tabernaculi, 

Gemmae vestis sacerdotis; 

Hsec figuris signant notis 

Novi duces populi. 

Horum nutu cedat error, 55 

Crescat fides, absit terror 

Finalis sententise, 

Ut soluti a delectis, 

Sociemur benedictis 

Ad tribunal gloriae. 60 

molten sea which Solomon made (1 Kin. vii. 23 — 25; 2 Chron. iv. 


50. Fontes] Cf. Exod. xv. 23, 25, 27. 

51. Cf. Lev. xxiv. 5 — 9. Bede : Duodecim panes in mensa 
tabernaculi duodecim sunt Apostoli, qui cum usque ad consumma- 
tionem seculi populum Dei reficiunt panibus Verbi, duodecim panes 
propositionis nunquam recedunt de mensa Domini. 

52. Gemmce] Cf. Exod. xxxix. 10 — 14. 

53. 54. Compare Hugh of St. Victor (Alleg. in Gen. iii. 16): 
Jacob est Christus : ejus filii, duodecim Apostoli. Hi sunt enim 
fontes deserti, quae Israel reperit in Helim (Exod. xv. 27) ; duo- 
decim panes propositionis (Lev. xxiv. 5) ; duodecim lapides in 
veste pontificali (Exod. xxxix. 8 — 14); duodecim lapides de Jordane 
sublevati (Josh. iv. 3 — 8); duodecim boves sub sereo mari (1 Kin. 
vii. 25); duodecim stellse in corona sponsae (Rev. xii. 1); duodecim 
fundamenta (Rev. xxi. 19 — 20); duodecim portae (Rev. xxi. 12); 
duodecim menses anni (Rev. xxii. 2) ; duodecim horae diei (John xi. 
9) ; duodecim fructus ligni vitae (Rev. xxii. 2). 



ABELARD was born in 1079 at Palais, near Nantes, 
and died in 1142. His talents, his vanity, his rare 
dialectic dexterity, his rationalism, his relations to a 
woman of so far nobler and deeper character than his 
own, the cloistral retirement in which he spent the later 
years of his agitated life — all these are matters of too 
familiar knowledge to need to be repeated. Of his 
poetry, to which, and to the great popularity which it 
enjoyed, both he and Heloise more than once refer, it 
was thought that the most part had perished. There 
was indeed an Advent hymn of no high merit, begin- 
ning, Mittit ad Virginem Non quemvis angelum, which 
had been sometimes ascribed to him (Clichtoveus, Elu- 
cidat. Eccles. p. 153) ; and a few other verses of no 
great significance were current under his name. Not 
very long since, however, six poems were discovered in 
the Vatican, which undoubtedly are of his composing. 
They are styled La?nentations (Planctus), as of David 
over Abner, the virgins of Israel over Jephtha's daughter, 
and are published in GreitlVs Spicilegium Vaticamim, Frau- 
enfeld, 1838, p. 123 — 131. They too have little merit. 
But this was not all; for about the same time a large 
body of his hymns, no fewer than ninety-seven, came to 
light in the Royal Library at Brussels, and are included 
in CoushVs complete edition of Abelard's writings, Abce- 
lardi Opp., Paris, 1849. These too, it must be acknow- 
ledged, for the most part disappoint expectation. This 


certainly would not be the case, if there were many among 
them like the following, which is as pregnant as it is 
brief ; curious, moreover, as shewing how entirely Abe- 
lard conformed to the typical interpretation of his age. 


TUBA Domini, Paule, maxima, 
De cselestibus dans tonitrua, 
Hostes dissipans, cives aggrega. 

Doctor gentium es praecipuus, 
Vas in poculum factus omnibus, 
Sapientiae plenum haustibus. 

Mane Benjamin praedam rapuit, 
Escas vespere largas dividit, 
Vitse ferculis mundum reficit. 

XLIV. Petri Abcelardi Opp. Paris, 1849, v °l- i- P« 3 20 « 
1 — 3. The trumpets of silver under the Old Lavv were to be 
used for the calling of the assembly (Num. x. 2), and for the 
heartening of the people when they went forth against their enemies 
(x. 9; xxxi. 6). Such a trumpet, and the greatest of such, was 
St. Paul. There is further a reminiscence here, as we gather from 
Abelard's Sermon (his 23rd) on the Conversion of St. Panl, of the 
words of St. Jerome, Paulum Apostolum quotienscunque lego, 
videor non mihi verba audire, sed tonitrua. 

7, 8. Benjamiii\ The immense significance of St. PauTs con- 
version for the Church not unnaturally led the early interpreters to 
seek some intimation of it in the Old Testament, or at least to 
welcome there anything which seemed like such. They believed 



Ut rhinoceros est indomitus, 10 

Quem ad aratrum ligans Dominus 
Glebas vallium frangit protinus. 

that they found such in the words of Jacob's prophecy, Gen. xlix. 
27. Paul, in whom it might be fitly said that the glory of the tribe 
of Benjamin culminated, was the wolf in the morning devouring the 
prey, and in the evening dividing the spoil. Thus Tertullian, 
arguing with the Gnostics, would shew how deeply rooted the New 
Testament was in the Old, the latter containing prophecies not of 
Christ only, but of his Apostles ; and proceeds {Adv. Marc. v. 1) : 
Mihi Paulum etiam Genesis olim repromisit. Inter illas enim 
figuras et propheticas super filios suos benedictiones, Jacob, cum ad 
Benjamin direxisset, Benjamin, inquit, lupus rapax, ad matutinum 
comedet adhuc, et advesperam dabit escam. Ex tribu enim Benja- 
min oriturum Paulum providebat, lupum rapacem, ad matutinum 
comedentem, id est, prima aetate vastaturum pecora Domini, ut 
persecutorem Ecclesiarum, dehinc ad vesperam escam daturum, id 
est, clevergente jam setate, oves Christi educaturum, ut doctorem 
nationum. Cf. Hilary, in Ps. lxvii. § 28 ; Augustine, Enarr. in 
Ps. lxxviii. ; Serni. 279, I ; and 333 ; Gregory the Great, Moral. 
xviii. 25 ; and Adam of St. Victor's fine hymnin commemoration of 
St. Paul (Gautier, vol. ii. p. 71) beginning, 

Corde, voce pulsa caelos. 

10. Ut rhinoceros\ The reference is to Job xxxix. 9, 10 : Num- 
quid volet rhinoceros servire tibi, aut morabitur ad pnesepe tuum ? 
Numquid alligabis rhinocerota ad arandum loro tuo ? aut confringet 
glebas vallium post te? (Vulg.) It was a favourite and a very 
grand fancy of the medieval interpreters, that all this (ver. 9 — 12) 
found its highest fulfilment, this impossible with man proving 
possible with God, in the conversion of St. Paul : thus see Gregory 
the Great, Moral. xxxi. 16, 30 ; and Abelard's own Sermon, re- 
ferred to already : Hic est rhinoceros ille divinis hodie loris ad- 
strictus, qui pristinam feritatem deposuit, et Domini jugo deditus 
divinumque aratrum trahens, glebas vallium frangere ccepit. 


Nunc nequitiae laudat villicum, 

Quem prudentia dicit praeditum, 

Ac prae filiis lucis providum. 15 

Perpes gloria Regi perpeti, 
Exercituum Christo Principi, 
Patri pariter et Spiritui. 

13—15. Cf. St. Luke xvi. 1—9. St. Jerome (ad Algas. § 7) 
records at length the exposition of this parable, deriving it from 
Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch, by aid of which these lines must be 
explained.' St. Paul is the Unjust Steward, scattering his lord's 
goods so long as he is a persecutor of the Church. He was put out 
of his stewardship, when the Lord met him on the way to Damascus; 
but afterwards found acceptance with his lord's debtors through 
lowering their bills — that is, through abating the rigour of the 
ceremonial law; and not acceptance with them only, but favour and 
praise from his Lord Himself. 

P 2 




/J^TERNA Christi munera, 
/ 1 ^ Et martyrum victorias, 
Laudes ferentes debitas, 
Laetis canamus mentibus. 

Ecclesiarum principes, 5 

Belli triumphales duces, 
Caelestis aulae milites, 
Et vera mundi lumina; 

Terrore victo saeculi, 

Spretisque pcenis corporis, 10 

Mortis sacrae compendio 

Vitam beatam possident. 

Traduntur igni martyres 

Et bestiarum dentibus ; 

Armata saevit ungulis ]5 

Tortoris insani manus. 

XLV. Ambrosii Opp., Paris, 1836, vol. iv. p. 201 ; Clichtoveus, 
Elucidat. Eccles. p. 75; Daniel, Thes. Hymnol. vol. i. p. 27; Mone, 
Hymn. Lat. Med. sEvi, vol. iii. p. 143. — Whether this hymn be 
St. Ambrose's, to whom the Benedictine editors ascribe it, or not, 
it is certainly not later than the fifth century. 


Nudata pendent viscera, 

Sanguis sacratus funditur, 

Sed permanent immobiles 

Vitae perennis gratia. 20 

Devota sanctorum fides, 
Invicta spes credentium, 
Perfecta Christi caritas, 
Mundi triumphat principem. 

In his Paterna gloria, 25 

In his voluntas Filii, 
Exultat in his Spiritus; 
Caelum repletur gaudiis. 

Te nunc, Redemtor, quaesumus 

Ut ipsorum consortio 30 

Jungas precantes servulos 

In sempiterna ssecula. 

32. I quote two stanzas from a noble medieval hymn on the same 
theme (Neale, Sequentice de Missalibus, p. 226) : 

Vos de valle visionis, 
Vos consortes passionis, 
Et Christi victorise, 
Vos de throno Salomonis, 
Vos de bello Gideonis 
Serta fertis gloriae. 

Vester sanguis, vestrum lumen, 
Fulcimentum et bitumen 
Totius Ecclesiae, 
Sion fundat et figurat, 
Ornat, polit et picturat 
Formam novse gratiae. 

2I 4 



HERI mundus exultavit, 
Et exultans celebravit 
Christi natalitia : 

XLVI. Clichtoveus, Elucidat. Eccles. p. 158; Rambach, Atuhol. 
Christl. Gesange, p. 285 ; Daniel, Thes. Hymnol. vol. ii. p. 64 ; 
Gautier, Adam de S. Victor, vol. i. p. 212. — There is another fine 
hymn by Adam of St. Victor on the martyrdom of St. Stephen, 
Rosa novum dans odorem ; but fine as it is, it is very inferior to this 
sublime composition. Gautier (vol. i. p. 223) has published it for 
the first time. 

I. Heri\ The Church has always loved to bring out the signifi- 
cance of the day on which it commemorates the martyrdom of St. 
Stephen— namely, that it is the day immediately following the day 
of Christ's nativity. Thus Durandus {Rational. vii. 42) ; Augustine, 
Serm. 314 and often ; Bernard, vol. i. p. 794, Bened. ed. ; and 
Fulgentius {Appendix to Augusti?ie, vol. v. 357): Hesterno die 
celebravimus Natalem quo Rex martyrum natus est in mundo ; 
hodie celebramus natalem quo primicerius martyrum migravit ex 
mundo. Et Ideo natus est Dominus ut moreretur pro servo; ne 
servus timeret mori pro Domino. Natus est Christus in terris, ut 
Stephanus nasceretur in cselis : altus ad humilia descendit, ut 
humiles ad alta adscenderent. Another hymn on St. Stephen 
(Clichtoveus, p. 20) has these noble lines expressing the same 
thought : 

Tu per Christum hebetatam primus transis rhomphaeam, 
Primum granum trituratum Christi ditans aream. 

The rho??iphcEa here is the fiery sword of the Cherubim, which 
precluded all access to Paradise, but which sword was quenched 


Heri chorus angelorum 

Prosecutus est caelorum 5 

Regem cum laetitia. 

Protomartyr et Levita, 

Clarus fide, clarus vita, 

Clarus et miraculis, 

Sub hac luce triumphavit, 10 

Et triumphans insultavit . 

Stephanus incredulis. 

Fremunt ergo tanquam ferae, 

Quia victi defecere 

Lucis adversarii : 1 5 

Falsos testes statuunt, 

Et linguas exacuunt 

Viperarum filii. 

Agonista, nulli cede ; 

Certa certus de mercede, 20 

Persevera, Stephane : 

Insta falsis testibus, 

Confuta sermonibus 

Synagogam Satanas. 

and blunted in the blood of Christ, so that Stephen could now pass 
it by, and enter into life. 

7. Protomariyr\ Called therefore apxh fJ-aprvpccv, aOX-nrav irpo- 
oi/j.iov, npccradXos, adX^rccv aKpoOiviov, in the Greek Church. By a 
very natural transfer of Jewish tenns to Christian things, Levita in 
the early Church language wa.s = diaconus (Bingham, Antiqq. xi. 
20, 2). 

11. insultavif] Cf. Acts vii. 51 — 53. 

13. Cf. Acts vii. 54. 

18. Cf. Matt. iii. 7. 

24. Synagogam Satan<z~\ Cf. Rev. ii. 9. 


Testis tuus est in caelis, 25 

Testis verax et fidelis, 

Testis innocentiae. 

Nomen habes Coronati, 

Te tormenta decet pati 

Pro corona gloriae. 30 

Pro corona non marcenti 
• Prefer brevis vim tormenti, 
Te manet victoria. 
Tibi fiet mors, natalis, 
Tibi poena terminalis - 35- 

Dat vitse primordia. 

Plenus Sancto Spiritu 

Penetrat intuitu 

Stephanus caelestia. 

Yidens Dei gloriam 40 

Crescit ad victoriam, 

Suspirat ad praemia. 

26. Cf. Rev. iii. 14. 

28. Coronati\ The nomen et omen which lay in that name Stephen 
(o-recpai/os) for the first winner of the martyr's crown, is a favourite 
one with the early Church writers. Thus Augustine (Enarr. in Ps. 
lviii. 3) : Stephanus lapidatus est, et quod vocabatur, accepit. 
Stephanus enim corona dicitur. Cf. Serm. 314, 2. He plays in 
like manner with the name of the martyr Vincentius, noting that he 
too was in like manner (pspoivvfios (Serm. 274): Vincentium ubique 
vincentem. So in the legendary life of St. Victor, a voice from 
heaven is heard at the moment of his death, Vicisti, Victor beate, 
vicisti ; and all this is embodied in a hymn addressed to the former 
of these martyrs : 

O Vincenti ! qui vicisti, Des invictum robur menti, 

Et invictus jam cepisti Soli Christus nam vincenti 

Prsemia vincentium, Manna dat absconditum. 

29, 30. Cf. 2 Tim. ii. 5 ; I Pet. v. 4. 


En a dextris Dei stantem 

Jesum, pro te dimicantem, 

Stephane, considera. 45 

Tibi caelos reserari, 

Tibi Christum revelari 

Clama voce libera. 

Se commendat Salvatori, 

Pro quo dulce ducit mori 50 

Sub ipsis lapidibus. 

Saulus servat omnium 

Vestes lapidantium, 

Lapidans in omnibus. 

43. stantem~\ The one occasion on which Christ appears in 
Scripture as standing at the right hand of God, is that of Stephen's 
martyrdom (Acts vii. 55, 56). The reason why in all other places 
he should be spoken of as sitting, and here only as standing, 
Gregory the Great, whom our poet follows, has no doubt rightly 
given (Hom. 19, in Fest. Ascens.): Sedere judicantis est, stare vero 
pugnantis vel adjuvantis. Stephanus stantem vidit, quem adjutorem 
habuit. See too Arator, long before : 

Lumina cordis habens caelos conspexit apertos, 
Ne lateat quid Christus agat : pro martyre surgit, 
Quem tunc stare videt, confessio nostra sedentem 
Cum soleat celebrare magis. Dux praescius armat 
Quos ad dona vocat. 

Our Collect on St. Stephen's day has not failed to bring this point 
out — ' O blessed Jesus, who standest at the right hand of God to 
succour all those that suffer for Thee. ' This is but one example, out 
of many, of the rich theological allusion, often unmarked by us, 
which the Collects of the Church contain. 

54. Lapidans in omnibus] Augustine (Serm. 315): Quantum 
sseviebat [Saulus] in illa caede, vultis audire? Vestimenta lapidan- 
tium servabat, ut omnium manibus lapidaret. 


Ne peccatum statuatur 55 

His, a quibus lapidatur, 

Genu ponit, et precatur, 

Condolens insanise : 

In Christo sic obdormivit, 

Qui Christo sic obedivit, 60 

Et cum Christo semper vivit, 

Martyrum primitiae. 

55 — 62. Cf. Acts vii. 59 (Vulg.): Positis autem genibus, clamavit 
voce magna dicens, Domine, ne statuas illis hoc peccatum. Et cum 
hoc dixisset, obdormivit in Domino. 

62. I cannot forbear quoting two stanzas, the first and fifth, from 
that other of Adam's hymns on the same martyr, referred to already. 
I will observe, for the explanation of the first line, that roses were 
the floral emblems of martyrs, as lilies of virgins, and violets of 

Rosa, novum dans odorem, Uva, data torculari, 

Ad ornatum ampliorem Vult pressuras inculcari, 

Regias caelestis, Ne sit infecunda : 

Ab ^Egypto revocatur ; Martyr optat petra teri, 

Illum sequi gratulatur, Sciens munus adaugeri 

Cujus erat testis, Sanguinis in unda. 



BORN 672, died 735. The circumstances of his 
life are in fresher remembrance among English 
Churchmen, than to need to be repeated here. 


SALVE, tropaeum gloriae, 
Salve, sacrum victoriae 
Signum, Deus quo perditum 
Mundum redemit mortuus. 

O gloriosa fulgidis 5 

Crux emicas virtutibus, 
Quam Christus ipse proprii 
Membris dicavit corporis. 

XLVII. Cassander, Hymni Ecclesiastici [Opp. Paris, 161 6), 
p. 281. — These stanzas form part of one of the eleven hymns which 
Cassander attributed to Bede, and published for the first time in his 
Hymni Ecclesiastici, Paris, 1556. The last editor of the works of 
Bede, Dr. Giles, has not been able to find any MS. containing these 
hymns, and, though not excluding, expresses (vol. i. p. clxxi.) many 
doubts in regard of their authenticity. Whether they are Bede's or 
not, I must dissent from the judgment of his editor in one respect, 
since, whatever the value of the poems as a whole, these lines have 
a real worth. We have a translation by Worsley, Poems and 
Translations, p. 186. 

220 BEDE 

Quondam genus mortalium 

Metu premebas pallido, . 10 

At nunc reples fidelium 

Amore laeto pectora. 

En ! ludus est credentium 

Tuis frui complexibus, 

Quae tanta gignis gaudia, 15 

Pandis polique januas ; 

Quae Conditoris suavia 

Post membra, nobis suayior 

Es melle facta, et omnibus 

Praelata mundi honoribus. 20 

Te nunc adire gratulor, 
Te caritatis brachiis 
Complector, ad cselestia 
Conscendo per te gaudia. 

Sic tu libens me suscipe, 25 

Illius, alma, servulum, 
Qui me redemit per tuam 
Magister altus gloriam. 

Sic fatur Andreas, crucis 

Erecta cernens cornua, 30 

Tradensque vestem militi, 

Levatur in vitae arborem. 

32. Compare a sermon by St. Bernard, In VigiL S. Andrece 
Apostoli, Opp. vol. i. p. 1063. 


SICUT chorda musicorum 
Tandem sonum dat sonorum 
Plectri ministerio, 

XLVIII. Clichtoveus, Elucidat. Eccles. p. 208. — These three 
stanzas are but the fragments of rather a long poem, in which the 
manner of St. Lawrence's martyrdom (he is said to have been 
broiled to death on a gridiron) is brought rather too prominently 
out. They are, notwithstanding, well worthy to find a place here, 
being full of striking images, and singularly characteristic of their 
authoi^s manner, most of all, perhaps, of his rich prodigality in the 
multiplication, of his somewhat ostentatious skill in the arrange- 
ment, of his rhymes. — St. Lawrence was archdeacon of Rome in 
the third century, and died in the persecution of Valerian. His 
festival was held in great honour by the Church of the middle ages, 
and himself accounted to hold a place only second to St. Stephen 
in the glorious army of martyrs (Durandus, Ratio7ial. vii. 23). 

I — 10. These and other like images appear in some lines of 
Hildebert upon a martyrdom [Opp. p. 1259): 

Sicut chorda solet dare tensa sonum meliorem, 
Sic pcenis tensus dat plenum laudis honorem ; 
Utque probat fornax vas fictile consolidando, 
Utque jubes late redolere unguenta liquando, 
Ut feriendo sapis fervorem vimque sinapis, 
Utque per ardorem tus undique fundit odorem, 
Sic odor insignis fiunt et vulnus et ignis. 
Si caro tundatur, granum palea spoliatur, 
Si comburatur, tolli robigo putatur. 


Sic in chely tormentorum 

Melos Christi confessorum 5 

Martyris dat tensio. 

Parum sapis vim sinapis, 

Si non tangis, si non frangis \ 

Et plus fragrat, quando flagrat, 

Tus injectum ignibus : 10 

Sic arctatus et assatus, 

Sub ardore, sub labore, 

Dat odorem pleniorem 

Martyr de virtutibus. 

Hunc ardorem factum foris 15 

Putat rorem vis amoris, 

Et zelus justitiae : 

Ignis urens, non comburens, 

Vincit prunas, quas adunas, 

O minister impie. 20 

4. chely\ XeAvs = testudo, originally the tortoise, out of the shell 
of which Hermes is said to have fashioned the first lyre. The poet 
would say : * It is with the martyrs of God in their sufferings as 
with the strings of the lyre, which are drawn tight and stricken, 
that so they may yield their sweetest sounds. ' 

16. Pntat rorem~\ An allusion probably to Dan. iii. 50 (Vulg.): 
Et fecit medium fornacis quasi ventum roris flantem. 



EX ^Egypto Pharaonis 
In amplexum Salomonis 
Nostri transit filia; 
Ex abjecta fit electa, 
Ex rugosa fit formosa, 
Ex lebete phiala. 

XLIX. Daniel, Thes. Hymnol. vol. iii. p. 256 ; Mone, Lalein. 
Hymn. vol. iii. p. 414. — A fine anonymous hymn, the product, so 
far as we may trust to internal evidence, of the fourteenth century. 
Mary of Egypt, ' a sinner ' in the same special sense as was that 
woman who anointed the Lord's feet in the house of the Pharisee 
(Luke vii. 37), but one in whom, if sin abounded, grace also 
abounded, finds her place in the Calendars alike of the Eastern and 
Western Churches. Having early abandoned her parents' home, 
she lived some seventeen years at Alexandria in all manner of ex- 
cess. Prepared to renew her sinful life at Jerusalem, she was there 
miraculously converted, and flying to the desert beyond Jordan 
spent some forty-seven years in penances as excessive as once her 
sins had been. She was discovered by the monk Zosimas, who 
gave her the Holy Communion, and who, having returned by her 
appointment after three years, found only her corpse, with her name 
written in the sand. A lion, as the legend runs, helped him to buiy 
her (cir. 420 A.D.). Her life in rhymed hexameters (these falling 
little short of a thousand), is printed among the poems ascribed to 
Hildebert, Opp. pp. 1 261-1276. In Dr. Neale's Sequentic? ex 
Missalibus, p. 159, there is a very noble sequence on another of 
these sinner-saints, St. Afra. 

1, 2. Compare I Kin. iii. I. 

6. In a great house there are vessels for honour, and vessels for 
dishonour (2 Tim. ii. 20) ; some, as the lebes, of brass (Exod. 


Vitam ducens hsec carnalem, 

Pervenit in Hierusalem, 

Nuptura pacifico. 

Sic excluso adultero lo 

Maritatur Sponso vero 

Ornatu mirifico. 

Lsetare, filia Thanis, 

Tuis ornata tympanis, 

Lauda, quondam sterilis ; 15 

Gaude, plaude, casta, munda, 

Virtutum prole foecunda, 

Vitis meri fertilis. 

Te dilexit noster Risus, 

Umbilicus est praecisus 2u 

Tuus continentia. 

Aquis lotam, pulcram totam 

Te salivit, te condivit 

Sponsi Sapientia. 

xxxviii. 3), and for common and profane uses ; some, as the costly 
phiala, oftentimes of gold (i Kin. vii. 30, Vulg.), or studded with 
gems, meet for the master's service. She that had been as that, was 
now transformed to this. We have the same image in Abelard's 
fine hymn on the Conversion of St. Paul (see p. 209) : 
Vas in poculum factus omnibus. 

13. Thanis is identical with the Zoan of our Version (Isai. 
xxx. 4), under which word there is a learned note (which see) in 
the Dictionary of the Bible, on the relation between these names. 
It was an ancient and famous city in Lower Egypt, and stands here 
as representative of the whole land. 

19. Cf. note, p. 168. 

20 — 24. Cf. Ezek. xvi. 4 : In die ortus tui non est pnecisus 


Septem pannis involuta, 25 

Intus tota delibuta 

Oleo lsetitiae : 

Cocco rubens caritatis, 

Cincta bysso castitatis, 

Zona pudicitiae. 30 

Hinc jacintho calcearis, 

Dum superna contemplaris 

Mutatis affectibus ; 

Vestiris discoloribus, 

Cubile vernat floribus, 35 

Fragrat aromatibus. 

O Maria, gaude quia 

Decoravit et amavit 

Sic te Christi gratia : 

Nobis det eadem fruij 40 

Sicque simus semper sui 

In perenni gloria. 

umbilicus tuus, et aqua non es lota in salutem, nec sale salita, nec 
involuta pannis . . . transiens autem per te dixi tibi, Vive . . . et 
lavi te aqua et unxi te oleo, et vestivi te discoloribus, et calceavi te 
ianthino, et cinxi te bysso. 






N" OCTE quadam, via fessus, 
Tomm premens, somno pressus, 
In obscuro noctis densas, 
Templum vidi Pictavense. 
Sub statura personali, 
Sub persona matronali : 
Situs quidem erat ei 
Reverendae faciei; 

L. HUdeberti et Marbodi Opp. p. 1357. — In the Gallia Chris- 
tiana, vol. ii. p. n 72, the circumstances are detailed which enable 
us to understand this noble vision. William Adelelm, the rightful 
Bishop of Poitiers, was in 11 30 violently expelled from his see, 
and driven into exile, by the faction of the anti-pope, Anacletus 
the Second, and of the Count of Poitiers, who sided with him; and 
an intrusive and schismatic bishop, Peter of Chasteleraut, usurped 
his throne, and exercised infinite vexations and oppressions upon 
the Church. William was at length restored in n 35, mainly owing 
to the menacing remonstrances of St Bernard. See in h: 
(Opp. vol. ii. p. 1122) a most characteristic account ofthemanner 
in which Bernard terrified the Count into this restoration. It was 
during the period of the usurpation, and when now it had lasted 
three years (ver. 79 — &i), that this poem was composed. It is pos- 
sible that I may overrate the merits of this poem ; but for myself I 
know of no nobler piece of versitication, nor more skilful manage- 
ment of rhyme, in the whole circle of sacred Latin poetry. 


Sed turbarat frontem ejus 

Omni damno damnum pejus ; 10 

Sic est tamen rebus mersis, 

Ut perpendas ex adversis 

Quanti esset illis annis, 

Quibus erat sine damnis. 

Juvenilis ille color, 15 

Nullus erat unde dolor, 

Nullus erat, sed in ore 

Livor erat pro colore. 

Haeret crini coronella, 

Fracta nimbis et procella : 20 

Vicem complet hic gemmarum 

Grex corrosor tinearum. 

Sunt in ventre signa famis, 

Quem ostendit rupta chlamys : 

Haec est chlamys, hic est cultus, 25 

Quem attrivit annus multus, 

Ab extremo quidem limbo 

Gelu rigens, madens nimbo. 

Est vetustas hujus vestis 

Novitatis suae testis, 30 

Innuendo quanta cura 

Facta esset haec textura : 

Nunc se tenet mille nodis, 

Implicata centum modis. 

29 — 34. The oldness of this, the Church's robe, and that it had 
endured so long, and survived so much, is a witness for what it was 
at the beginning, and in its rirst freshness, how beautiful and how 
beautifully wrought. 

Q 2 



Haec ut stetit fletu madens, 35 

Flendi causam mihi tradens, 
De se quidem in figura 
Loquebatur inter plura, 
Non desistens accusare 
Navem, nautas, ventos, mare, 40 

Ut ex verbis nesciretur 
Quid vel quare loqueretur. 
Mox infigens vultum caelis, 
Ora solvit his querelis : 
Deus meus, exclamavit, 45 

Quis me turbo suffocavit? 
Quae potestas impotentem? 
Quae vis urget me jacentem? 
Unde metus? unde mceror? 
Unde veni ? vel quo feror ? 50 

Qui vel quales hi piratae, 
Qui insultant mersa rate? 
Quae procellae vel qui venti 
Sic insurgunt resurgenti? 
Nauta bone, via bonis, 55 

Utens remo rationis, 
Quam inepte, quam incaute 
Sese habent mei nautae ! 
Sed nec nautae dici debent, 
Qui fortunae manus praebent, 60 

Nec rectorum more degunt, 
Qui reguntur, et non regunt. 
His tam caecis quam ignavis 
Est commissus clavus navis, 
Quam curtavit parte una 65 

Piratae vis importuna ; 


Nec a nautis est subventum 

Contra ictus ferientum. 

Timent viris non timenda 

Hi a quibus sunt regenda; 70 

Motum frondis, umbram lunae 

Timet illa gens fortunae. 

Sic me caecam caeco mari 

Patiuntur evagari; 

Procul collum a monili, 75 

Procul latus a cubili ; 

Vilipendor a marito 

Cum ad torum hunc invito. 

Tribus annis noctem passa, 

Vehor mari nave quassa ; 80 

Non exclusit annis tribus 

Potus sitim, famem cibus : 

Vicem potus, vicem panis 

Spes explebat, sed inanis; 

Nam exspecto tribus annis, 85 

Quasi stultus, fluxum amnis \ 

Amnis tamen elabetur, 

Nec ad horam haurietur. 

Malo fracto, scisso velo, 

Ad extremum nunc anhelo ; 90 

Nondum ventus iram lenit, 

Sed a parte portus venit, 

Ad occasum flat ab ortu, 

Non ad portum sed a portu. 

Dispensator, qui dispensas 95 

Cum privatis res immensas, 


Bene cuncta, nil inique ; 

Ita nusquam ut ubique ; 

Ortum suum cujus curoe 

Debent omnes creaturae, ioo 

Quas creasti non creatus, 

Factus nunquam, tamen natus : 

Tu qui magnus sine parte, 

Princeps pacis sine Marte ; 

Tu qui bonus, immo bonum, 105 

Quem amplecti paucis pronum ; 

Tibi constat id me velle, 

Ne me vexent hae procellse, 

Ne jam credar sorte regi, 

Desponsata regum Regi. lio 

Me laedentes, Rex, inclina, 

Ne exultent de rapina; 

Facientibus rapinam 

Sit rapina in ruinam ; 

Arce lupos cum piratis, 115 

Xe desperet portum ratis. 

Audi, Pastor, qui me regis, 

Da pastorem doctum gregis, 

Se regnantem ratione, 

Deviantem a Simone, 120 

120. a Simoiie\ Here, as so often, Simon is put for the sin of 
simony to which he lent his name. Thus, in some energetic lines 
first pubiished by Edelestand du Meiil (Poes. PopnL Lat. 1847, 
p. 178), and by him confidently ascribed to Thomas a Becket : 

Rosoe fiunt saliunca, 
Domus Dei fit spelunca : 
Simon malos pnefert bonis, 
Simon totus est in donis ; 


Qui sic pugnet in virtute 
Ne sint opes parum tutse ; 
Sic dispenset ; — et hoc dicto 
Somnus abit, me relicto. 

Simon regnat apud Austrum, 
Simon frangit omne claustrum. 
Cum non datur, Simon stridet ; * 
Sed, si detur, Simon ridet. 
Simon aufert, Simon donat, 
Hunc expellit, hunc coronat ; 
Hunc circumdat gravi peste, 
Illum nuptiali veste ; 
Illi donat diadema, 
Qui nunc erat anathema. 
Jam se Simon non abscondit, 
Res permiscet et confundit. 
Simon Petms hunc elusit, 
Et ab alto jussum trusit : 
Quisquis eum imitatur 
Cum eodem puniatur, 
Et, sepultus in infernum, 
Pcenas luat in aeternum ! 

122. opes\ Should we read oves, witn reference to such passages 
i I Sam. xvii. 34, 35 ; John x. 12 ? 




QUAM dilecta tabernacula 
Domini virtutum et atria ! 
Quam electi architecti, 
Tuta aedificia, 

Quae non movent, immo fovent, 
Ventus, flumen, pluvia ! 

LI. Clichtoveus, Elacidat. Eccles. p. 186 ; Gautier, Adam de 
S. Victor, vol. i. p. 155. — This hymn, of which the theme is, the 
dignities and glories of the Church, as prefigured in the Old Testa- 
ment, and fulfilled in the New, is the very extravagance of typical 
application, and, were it only as a study in medieval typology, 
would be worthy of insertion ; but it has other and higher merits ; 
even though it must be owned that the poet's learned stuff rather 
masters him, than that he is able effectually to master it. Its 
title indicates that it was composed for the occasion of a church's 
dedication, the services of which time were ever laid out for the 
carrying of men's thoughts from the temple made with hands to 
that spiritual temple, on earth or in heaven, l ' whose builder and 
maker is God." 

1 — 6. Thefirst two lines are a manifest allusion to Ps. lxxviii. 2, 3 
(Vulg.) : Quam dilecta tabernacula tua, Domine virtutum ! Concu- 
piscit, et deficit anima mea in atria Domini. The last four lines 
adapt the Lord's words, Matt. vii. 24, 25, to that house built in- 
deed upon a Rock, upon Christ Himself. The poet writes architecti, 
including among these such as, under the great master-builder, 
carried up the walls — Apostles and prophets (Ephes. ii. 20 ; Rev. 
xxi. 14). 


Quam decora fundamenta, 

Per concinna sacramenta 

Umbrae praecurrentia. 

Latus Adae dormientis 10 

Evam fudit, in manentis 

Copulae primordia. 

Arca ligno fabricata 

Noe servat, gubernata 

Per mundi diluvium. 15 

Prole sera tandem fceta, 

Anus Sara ridet laeta, 

Nostrum lactans Gaudium. 

Servus bibit qui legatur, 

Et camelus adaquatur 20 

10—12. Latiis Ad<z\ Augustine (Enarr. in Ps. lvi. 5), shewing 
the mystery of the sleep which God sent on Adam, when about to 
fashion the woman from his side, asks, Quare voluit costam 
dormiente auferre? and replies, Quia dormiente Christo in cruce 
facta est conjux de latere. Percussum est enim latus pendentis de 
lancea, et profluxerunt Ecclesice sacramenta. Hugh of St. Victor : 
Adam obdormivit, ut de costa illius fieret Eva ; Christus morte 
sopitus est, ut de sanguine ejus redimeretur Ecclesia. 

18. Gaudium\ Hughof St. Victor : Isaac, qui interpretatur risus, 
designat Christum, qui est gaudium nostrum. See note, p. 168. 

19. Servus bibit\ Eliezer, the servant of Abraham, represents, 
in the allegorical language of that day, the apostles or legates of 
Christ, who were themselves refreshed by the faith of that Gentile 
world which they brought as a bride to Christ — who, so to speak, 
drank of the streams which that world ministered to them, as 
Eliezer drank from the pitcher of Rebecca. The whole allegory of 
Gen. xxiv. is set out at length in a sermon of Hildebert's, Opp. 
p. 741. 


Ex Rebeccae hvdria ; 
Hcec inaures et armillas 
Aptat sibi, ut per illas 
Viro fiat congrua. 

Synagoga supplantatur 25 

A Jacob, dum divagatur, 

Ximis freta literce. 

Lippam Liam latent multa. 

Quibus videns Rachel fulta 

Pari nubit fcedere. 30 

In bivio tegens nuda, 
Geminos parit ex Juda 

23. Aptat sibi\ As Rebecca puts on the bracelets and earrings 
which Isaac sent her (Gen. xxiv. 22), so the Gentile Church 
adorns herself for her Lord ; but with ornaments of his giving. 

25 — 27. divagatur\ Hugh of St. Victor {Alleg. ii. 11): Esau 
foris venationi deserviens, benedictionem amittens, populum Israel 
signihcat, qui foris in litera justitiam quserit, et benedictionem cse- 
lestis haereditatis dimittit. 

2S, 29. liam — Rachel\ Leah and Rachel signify, as is well 
known, the active and contemplative life ; theyare, so to speak, the 
Martha and Mary of the Old Testament ; but they also signify the 
Synagogue and the Church — Leah the Synagogue, lippa^ unable to 
see Christ, the true end of the law ; but Rachel, or the Church, 
z-idens, seeing the things that belong to her peace. 

31. tegens nuda~\ Cf. Gen. xxxviii. 14. For a general defence 
of such ugly types as this, and that which presently follows, 49 — 51, 
and of the seeking a prophetic and even a typical element in 
the sins of God's saints, see AugusUne, Con. Faust. xxii. S$ ; and 
again &J : Oderimus ergo peccatum, sed prophetiam non extingua- 
mus ; cf. Gregory the Great, Mor. iii. 28. St. Bernard somewhere 
speaks of the Xew Testament sacraments (using that word in its 


Thamar diu vidua. 

Hic Moyses a puella, 

Dum se lavat, in fiscella 35 

Reperitur scirpea. 

Hic mas agnus immolatur, 

Quo Israel satiatur, 

Tinctus ejus sanguine. 

Hic transitur rubens unda, 40 

^Egyptios sub profunda 

Obruens voragine. 

Hic est urna manna plena, 
Hic mandata legis dena, 

largest sense), as fair both within and without, while in the Old, 
some are fair only within, and ill-favoured without. It is not my 
part here to discuss the fitness or unfitness of the use of such types, 
but merely to indicate what is needful for their full imderstanding. 
These words of Augustine will explain the present ; who cares to 
see the matter brought out in greater detail may follow up the re- 
ference (Con. Eaust. xxii. 86) : Habitus meretricius confessio pec- 
catorum est Typum quippe jam Ecclesiae ex gentibus evocatse 
gerit Thamar. A non agnoscente fcetatur, quia de illa praedictum 
est, Populus quem non cognovi, servivit mihi. 

34 — 36. Mqyses\ Hugh of St. Victor (Alleg. iii. 1) : Moyses 
juxta flumen significat quemlibet hominem juxta fluvium praesentis 
saeculi positum ; filia regis Gratiam designat, quae quemlibet ad 
vitam praedestinatum de fluxu sseculi liberat, et in filium adoptat, ut 
qui prius fuerat filius irae, deinceps existat filius gratiae. The words 
Jiscella scirpea occur in the Vulgate, Exod. ii. 3. 

37—39. Cf. Exod. xii. 5 ; 1 Cor. v. 7. 

40 — 42. Hugh of St. Victor : In Mari Rubro submersus est 
Pharao, et principes ejus ; et in baptismo liberamur a potestate 
diaboli et principum ejus. 


Sed in arca foederis ; 45 

Hic sunt aedis omamenta, 
Hic Aaron indumenta, 
Quae praecedit poderis. 

Hic Varias viduatur, 

Barsabee sublimatur, 50 

Sedis consors regiae : 

Haec Regi varietate 

Vestis astat deauratae, 

Sicut regum filiae. 

Huc venit Austri regina, 55 

Salomonis quam divina 

46. cedis ornamentd\ The candlestick, altar of incense, table of 
shewbread, and the like. He would say, Here, in the tabernacle 
which the Lord has pitched, are these in their truth, and not, as in 
that old, the mere figures of the true (Heb. ix.). See Gregory the 
Great, in Ezech. Hom. vii. § 2. 

48. poderis~\ = ToB7]pf]s, vestis talaris. The word was quite natural- 
ized in ecclesiastical Latin ; thus Hugh of St. Victor : Tunica illa 
quae Graece poderis, hoc est, talaris dicitur ; being for once right in 
his etymology of a Greek word. The poderis is the "robe" of 
Exod. xxviii. 3 (iro^prjs, LXX. and Josephus : tunica, Vulg.). 
The poet would say, Here, in the Church, are the realities which 
the garments of the High Priest (indumenta), and the robe (poderis), 
the chief among them, did but foreshew. A mystical meaning has 
always been found in these garments ; see Braun, De Vest. Sacerd. 
Hebr. p. 701—752. 

49. Varias viduatur] See note on ver. 31. I could hardly quote, 
without offence, the lines of Hildebert (Opp. p. 121 7), in which 
he traces the mystery of Rom. vii. I — 6 as foreshewn at 2 Sam. xi. 
26, 27. 

52—54. Cf. Ps. xlv. 9 (E. V.); xliv. 10 (Vulg.) : Astitit regina a 
dextris tuis in vestitu deaurato, circumdata varietate. 

55. Austri regina\ The coming of the queen of the South (Matt. 


Condit sapientia ; 

Haec est nigra, sed formosa; 

Myrrhae et turis fumosa 

Virga pigmentaria. 60 

Haec futura, quae figura 

Obumbravit, reseravit 

Nobis dies gratiae ; 

Jam in lecto cum dilecto 

Quiescamus, et psallamus, 65 

Adsunt enim nuptiae : 

Quarum tonat initium 
In tubis epulantium, 

xii. 24) to hear the wisdom of Solomon (1 Kin. x.), was a favourite 
type of the coming of the Gentile world to hear the wisdom of a 
greater than Solomon. Hugh of St. Victor (Alleg. vii. 2) : Venit 
ad Salomonem regina Austri ut audiret sapientiam ejus, et venit ad 
Christum Gentilitas ut audiret sapientiam ejus. 

58. nigra, sed formosd\ In these words, drawn from Cant. i. 5 
(nigra sum, sed formosa, Vulg.), the middle age expositors found, 
not the Church's confession of sin as still cleaving to her ; but rather 
made them parallel to such words as the Apostle's : " We have 
this treasure in earthen vessels " (2 Cor. iv. 7), or the Psalmist's, 
" The king's daughter is all glorious within " (Ps. xlv. 12), within 
and not without ; having no form nor comeliness, no glory in the 
eyes of the world — " black " therefore to it, but beautiful to her 
Lord (Bernard, Ln Cant. Serm. 25). 

60. Virga pig?7ientaria~\ Cf. Cant. iii. 6 (Vulg.) : Quas est ista, 
quce ascendit per desertum, sicut virgula fumi ex aromatibus myrrhae, 
et turis, et universi pulveris pigmentarii ? The Bride, or Church, is 
likened to the " pillar of smoke perfumed with myrrh and frankin- 

67 — 69. The marriage of Christ with his Church, which began 
under the Old Covenant, was completed in the Xew. The trumpets 
belong to the feasts of the Old (Xum. x. 10; cf. Ps. xli. 5, Vulg., 



Et finis per psalterium. 
Sponsum millena milia 
Una laudant melodia, 
Sine fine dicentia, 
Alleluia. Amen. 


sonus cpulantis) ; the psaltery or decachordon (modulationem edens 
longe suaviorem et gratiorem auditu quam sit tubarum sonitus ob- 
streperus : Clichtoveus) to the New ; it is on it that the new song is 
sung (Ps. cxliii. 9, Vulg.) : Deus, canticum navum cantabo tibi : in 
psalterio decachordo psallam tibi. Cf. Augustine, Serm. 9 ; De 
decein Chordis^ 5. 

73. Walter Mapes' clever irony on this so favourite school of 
Scripture interpretation, his complaint that, although he had culti- 
vated it so diligently, it had brought no worldly preferment to him, 
as it had brought to many, all this may be found at length in 
Leyser's Hist. Poett. et Poemm. Med. sEvi, pp. 779 — 784. These 
are some stanzas : 

Opulenti solent esse, 
Qui aptabant virgam Jessce 
Partui virgineo, 
Sive rubum visionis, 
Sive vellus Gideonis 
Sparsum rore vitreo. 

Solet Christus appellari 
Lapis sumptus de altari 
Non manu sed forcipe. 
Hoc est notum sapienti, 
Sed praebendam requirenti 
Nemo dicet, Accipe. 

Duo ligna Sareptence, 
Spiritalis escam ccenae 
Coquunt in Ecclesia ; 
Abrahamque tulit ligna, 
Per quae digne Deo digna 
Cremaretur hostia. 

Hcec scrutari quidam solent, 
Post afflicti fame dolent 
Se vacasse studio. 
Unde multi perierunt, 
Et in ipso defecerunt 
Scrutantes scrutinio. 



EHEU ! eheu ! mundi vita, 
Quare me delectas ita? 
Cum non possis mecum stare, 
Quid me cogis te amare? 

Eheu ! vita fugitiva, 5 

Omni fera plus nociva, 
Cum tenere te non queam, 
Cur seducis mentem meam ? 

Eheu ! vita, mors vocanda, 

Odienda, non amanda, 10 

Cum in te sint nulla bona, 

Cur exspecto tua dona? 

LII. Edelestand du Meril, Poesies Populaires Latines du Moyen 
Age, Paris, 1847, P- I0 % 1 Mone, Hymn. Lat. Med. ALvi, vol. i. 
p. 411. — The poem from which these stanzas are drawn consists of 
nearly four hundred lines. It was first completely published by Du 
Meril, as indicated above, from a MS. in the Imperial Library at 
Paris. The MS. is of the twelfth century, and the poem itself can 
scarcely be of an earlier date. Three or four stanzas of it had already 
got abroad. Thus two are quoted by Gerhard, Loci TheolL xxix. 
11, and see Leyser, Hist. Poem. Med. AZvi, p. 423. The attribu- 
tion of these fragments of the poem, and thus implicitly of the whole, 
to St. Bernard, rests on no authority whatever ; it is merely a part 
of that general ascription to him of any poems of merit belonging 
to that period, whereof the authorship was uncertain. 


Vita mundi, res morbosa, 

Magis fragilis quam rosa, 

Cum sis tota lacrymosa, 15 

Cur es mihi gratiosa ? 

Vita mundi, res laboris, 

Anxia, plena timoris, 

Cum sis semper in languore, 

Cur pro te sum in dolore? 20 

Vita mundi, mors futura, 
Incessanter ruitura, 
Cum in brevi sis mansura, 
Cur est mihi de te cura ? 

Vita mundi, res maligna, 25 

Ut ameris nunquam digna, 
Quid putas tibi prodesse, 
Si me ducas ad non esse ? 

Vita mundi, res immunda, 

Solis impiis jucunda, 30 

Nutrimentum vitiorum, 

Quid habes in te decorum ? 

Desine mihi placere, 

Xoli mihi congaudere, 

Desine me conturbare, 35 

Xoli, quaeso, me amare. 

Execro tuum amorem, 
Renuo tuum favorem \ 
Desero tuum decorem, 
Xon amo tuum odorem. 40 


Per te ipsam tibi juro, 
Donis tuis nihil curo, 
Quare nil potes donare 
Nisi pcenas et plorare. 

Pellam te de corde meo, 45 

Adjuvante Christo Deo, 
Nec permittam te redire, 
Si debeas interire. 

Nec mireris, pestis dira, 

Si te persequor cum ira, 50 

Quare tu mihi fecisti 

Quicquid mali potuisti. 

Idcirco, vita inepta, 

Solis fatuis accepta, 

Cum sis tota plena sorde, 55 

Te refuto toto corde. 

Toto corde te refuto, 

Nec sententiam commuto, 

Mortem plus volo subire, 

Tibi, vita, quam servire. bO 



UT jucundas cervus undas 
^Estuans desiderat, 
Sic ad rivum Dei vivum 
Mens fidelis properat. 

Sicut rivi fontis vivi 5 

Praebent refrigerium, 
Ita menti sitienti 
Deus est remedium. 

Quantis bonis superponis 

Sanctor tuos, Domine : 10 

Sese laedit, qui recedit 

Ab aeterno lumine. 

Vitam laetarn et quietam, 

Qui te quaerit, reperit ; 

Nam laborem et dolorem 15 

Metit, qui te deserit. 

Pacem donas, et coronas, 

His qui tibi militant \ 

Cuncta laeta sine meta 

His qui tecum habitant. 20 

LIII. Mommey, Supplementum Patrum, Paris, 1686, p. 165. — 
He attributes the poem from which these lines are drawn, but on 
grounds entirely insumcient, to St. Bernard. 


Heu quara vana raens humana 
Visione falleris ! 
Dura te curis nocituris 
Imprudenter inseris. 

Cur non caves lapsus graves, 25 

Quos suadet proditor, 
Nec affectas vias rectas, 
Quas ostendit Conditor? 

Resipisce, atque disce 

Cujus sis originis ; 30 

Ubi degis, cujus legis, 

Cujus sis et ordinis. 

Ne te spernas, sed discernas, 

Homo, gemma regia : 

Te perpende, et attende 35 

Qua sis factus gratia. 

Recordare quis et quare 

Sis a Deo conditus ; 

Hujus haeres nunc maneres, 

Si fuisses subditus. 40 

O mortalis, quantis malis 
Meruisti affici, 
Dum rectori et auctori 
Noluisti subjici. 

34. gemma regia\ Thus a later hymn, on the recovery of the lost 
sinner : 

Amissa drachma regio 
Recondita est aerario : 
Et gemma, deterso luto, 
Nitore vincit sidera. 
R 2 


Sed majores sunt dolores 45 

Infernalis carceris ; 

Quo mittendus et torquendus 

Es, si male vixeris. 

Cui mundus est jucundus, 

Suam perdit animam : 50 

Pro re levi atque brevi 

Vitam perdit optimam. 

Si sunt plagse, curam age 

Ut curentur citius : 

Ne, si crescant et putrescant, 55 

Pergas in deterius. 

Ne desperes, jam cohseres 

Christi esse poteris, 

Si carnales, quantum vales, 

Affectus excluseris ; 60 

Si vivorum et functorum 
Christum times judicem : 
Debes scire, quod perire 
Suum non vult supplicem. 

Preces funde, pectus tunde, 65 

Flendo cor humilia : 
Poenitenti et gementi 
Non negatur venia. 

2 45 


W T ILLIAM ALARD, born 1572, and descended 
from a noble family in Belgium, was the son of 
Francis Alard, a confessor of the Reformed Faith during 
the persecutions of the Duke of Alva. The father, 
hardly escaping from the Low Countries with his life, 
settled in Holstein, at the invitation of Christian the 
Fourth, king of Denmark. For three or four generations 
the family, which appears to have established itself there, 
or in the neighbouring parts of Germany, was distin- 
guished in the walks of theology and classical learning ; 
so much so that one of its later members published a 
Decas Alardorum Scriptis Clarorum, Hamburg, 172 1, 
from which my information is derived. Besides other 
works which William composed, he was the author of 
two small volumes of Latin hymns, which, however for- 
gotten now, appear to have found much favour at the 
time of their publication : Ex^ubiarum piaruni Centuria, 
Lipsiae, 1623 ; and Excubiarum piarum Centuria Secunda, 
1628; I believe that there was also a third Century, 
though it has never come under my eye. Of the first 
Century four editions were published in the author's life- 
time. He died Pastor of Krempe in Holstein in 1645. 

246 ALARD 


CUM me tenent fallacia 
Mundi fugacis gaudia, 
Cselo vigil mihi datus 
Flet atque plorat Angelus. 

Sed quando lacrimis mea 
Deploro tristis crimina, 
Laetatur Angelus Dei, 
Qui tangitur cura mei. 

Proinde abeste, gaudia 
Mundi fugacis omnia; 
Adeste lacrimse, mea 
Plorem quibus tot crimina : 

Ne, lsetus in malo, Angelis 
Sim causa fletus caelicis, 
Sed his, nefas lugens meum, 
Creem perenne gaudium. 

LIV. Excubiariim Piarum Centuria 2^«, Lips. 1628, p. 304. 



SIT ignis atque lux mihi 
Reo tui perceptio, 
Jesu beate, corporis, 
Sacerrimique sanguinis ; 

Ut ignis hic cremet mei 
Cordis nefas, et omnia 
Delicta, noxios simul 
ArTectuum rubos cremet; 

Ut ista lux sua face 
Tenebricosa pectoris 
Illuminet mei, prece 
Te semper ut pia colat. 

LV. Excub. Piar. Cent. Lips. 1623, p. 336. — The reader ac- 
quainted with the Greek Euchologion will recognize this as little 
more than the versification of a prayer therein. 



/1 ^TERNE rerum Conditor, 
7 1 ^ Noctem diemque qui regis, 
Et temporum das tempora, 
Ut alleves fastidium; 

Praeco diei jam sonat, 
Noctis profundae pervigil, 

LVI. *S". Ambrosii Opp. Paris, 1836, p. 200. — Many so-called 
Ambrosian hymns are not by St. Ambrose ; and there have not 
wanted some who have affirmed that we possess none which can 
certainly be ascribed to him. Yet, to speak not of others, this is 
lifted above all doubt, Augustine, the contemporary of Ambrose, and 
himself for some time a resident at Milan, distinctly ascribing it to 
him, Retract. i. 21 ; cf. his Confess. ix. 12, in proof of his fami- 
liarity with the hymns of St. Ambrose. Moreover, the hymn is but 
the metrical arrangement of thoughts which he has elsewhere 
{Hexacm. xxiv. 88) expressed in prose : Galli cantus . . . et dor- 
mientem excitat, et sollicitum admonet, et viantem solatur, proces- 
sum noctis canora significatione protestans. Hoc canente latro suas 
relinquit insidias ; hoc ipse lucifer excitatus oritur, cselumque illu- 
minat ; hoc canente mcestitiam trepidus nauta deponit ; omnisque 
crebro vespertinis flatibus excitata tempestas et procella mitescit ; 
. . . hoc postremo canente ipsa Ecclesiae Petra culpam suam diluit 
— with much more, in which the very turns of expression used in 
the hymn recur. 



Nocturna lux viantibus, 
A nocte noctem segregans. 

Hoc excitatus lucifer 

Solvit polum caligine; 10 

Hoc omnis erronum cohors 

Viam nocendi deserit. 

Hoc nauta vires colligit, 

Pontique mitescunt freta; 

Hoc, ipsa petra Ecclesise, 15 

Canente, culpam diluit. 

Surgamus ergo strenue, 
Gallus jacentes excitat, 

7, 8. Clichtoveus : Nocturna lux est viantibus quantum ad 
munus et officium, quod noctu iter agentibus nocturnas significat 
horas, perinde atque interdiu viam carpentibus lux solis eas in- 
sinuat conspicantibus solem . , . A nocte noctem segregare memoratur, 
quoniam priorem noctis partem a posteriore suo cantu dirimit ac 
disseparat, quasi noctis discretor. 

11. erronnm~\ A preferable reading to errorum, which might 
so easily have supplanted it, but which it, the rarer word, would 
scarcely have supplanted. In the hymn of Prudentius we read : 

Ferunt vagantes dcemones, Invisa nam vicinitas 

Laetos tenebris noctium, Lucis, salutis, numinis, 

Gallo canente exterritos Rupto tenebrarum situ, 

Sparsim timere et cedere. Noctis fugat satellites. 

15. petra Ecclesics] That St. Ambrose was very far from believ- 
ing in a Church built upon a man, that therefore here he can mean 
no such thing, is plain from other words of his (De Incarn. Dom. 
5) : Fides ergo est Ecclesiae fundamentum : non enim de carne 
Petri, sed de flde dictum est, quia portae mortis ei non praevalebunt. 

17. Surgamus ergo] The cock-crowing had for the early Chris- 


Et somnolentos increpat ; 

Gallus negantes arguit. 20 

Gallo canente, spes redit, 
^Egris salus refunditur, 
Mucro latronis conditur, 
Lapsis ndes revertitur. 

Jesu, labantes respice, 25 

Et nos videndo corrige : 
Si respicis, lapsus cadunt, 
Fletuque culpa solvitur. 

Tu lux refulge sensibus, 

Mentisque somnum discute : 30 

Te nostra vox primum sonet, 

Et vota solvamus tibi. 

tians a mystical significance. It said, c The night is far spent, the 
day is at hand.' And thus the cock, * the native bellman of the 
night/ became in the middle ages the standing emblem of the 
preachers of God's Word, nay, we may say of Christ Himself 
(Brockhaus, Prudentius, p. 239). The old heathen notion, that 
the lion could not bear the sight of the cock (Ambrose, Hexaevi. 
vi. 4 : Leo gallum et maxime album veretur ; cf. Lucretius, iv. 
716 ; Pliny, H. N. viii. 19) easily adapted itself to this new sym- 
bolism. Satan, the roaring lion, fled away terrified, at the faithful 
preaching of God's Word. Nor did it pass unnoted, that this bird, 
clapping its wings upon its sides, first rouses itself, before it seeks 
to rouse others. Thus Gregory the Great {Reg. Pastor. iii. 40) : 
Gallus, cum jam edere cantus parat, prius alas excutit, et semetip- 
sum feriens vigilantiorem reddit : quia nimirum necesse est, ut hi, 
qui verba sanctse praedicationis movent, prius studio bonae actionis 
evigilent, ne in semetipsis torpentes opere, alios excitent voce. 
25 — 28. A beautiful allusion to Luke xxii. 60 — 62. 



JESU, dulcis memoria, 
Dans vera cordi gaudia, 
Sed super mel et omnia 
Ejus dulcis praesentia. 

Nil canitur suavius, 5 

Nil auditur jucundius, 
Nil cogitatur dulcius, 
Quam Jesus Dei Filius. 

Jesu, spes pcenitentibus, 

Quam pius es petentibus, io 

Quam bonus te quaerentibus, 

Sed quid invenientibus ? 

LVII. Bernardi Ofip. ed. Bened. 1719, vol. ii. p. 914. There 
is an anonymous translation of this poemin Palmer's Book qfPraise, 
and one into German in Von Meyer's Blatter fiir hbhere Wahrheit, 
vol. ii. p. 350. — This poem, among those of St. Bernard the 
most eminently characteristic, consists of nearly fifty quatrains, and, 
unabridged, would have been too long for insertion here ; not to 
say that, with all the beauty of the stanzas in particular, as a whole, 
it lies under the defect of a certain monotony and want of progress. 
Where all was beautiful, the task of selection was a hard one ; but 
only so could the poem have found place in this volume ; while, 
for the reasons just stated, there is gain as well as loss in presenting 
it in this briefer form. 


Jesu, dulcedo cordium, 
Fons vivus, lumen mentium, 
Excedens omne gaudium, 15 

Et omne desiderium. 

Nec lingua valet dicere, 

Nec littera exprimere, 

Expertus potest credere 

Quid sit Jesum diligere. 20 

Quando cor nostrum visitas, 
Tunc lucet ei veritas, 
Mundi vilescit vanitas, 
Et intus fervet caritas. 

Qui te gustant, esuriunt ; 25 

Qui bibunt, adhuc sitiunt ; 

Desiderare nesciunt 

Xisi Jesum quem diligunt. 

Quem tuus amor ebriat, 

Novit quid Jesus sapiat; 30 

Quam felix est quem satiat ! 

Non est ultra quod cupiat. 

Jesu, decus angelicum, 

In aure dulce canticum, 

In ore mel mirincum, 35 

In corde nectar aelicum : 

Desidero te millies, 

Mi Jesu, quando venies? 

Me laetum quando facies? 

Me de te quando saties? 40 


O Jesu mi dulcissime, 
Spes suspirantis animae, 
Te quasrunt piae lacrimae, 
Te clamor mentis intimae. 

Tu fons" misericordise, 45 

Tu verae lumen patriae : 
Pelle nubem tristitiae, 
Dans nobis lucem gloriae. 

Te caeli chorus praedicat, 

Et tuas laudes replicat : 50 

Jesus orbem laetincat, 

Et nos Deo pacificat. 

Jesus ad Patrem rediit, 

Caeleste regnum subiit : 

Cor meum a me transiit, 55 

Post Jesum simul abiit : 

Quem prosequamur laudibus, 

Votis, hymnis, et precibus \ 

Ut nos donet caelestibus 

Secum perfrui sedibus. 60 

60. Let me here append, as breathing the same spirit, a few 
beautiful lines from a poem ascribed to Richard Rolle de Hampole : 

Summa merces te videre, 
Tibi semper inhaerere ; 
Tu es dulcor vitse verae, 
Fons felicitatis merae ; 
Fac ut tibi placeam. 



TANDEM audite me, 
Sionis filiae ! 
ALgmm respicite, 
Dilecto dicite : 

Amore vulneror, 5 

Amore funeror. 

Fulcite floribus 

Fessam languoribus; 

Stipate citreis 

Et malis aureis • 10 

Nimis edacibus 

Liquesco facibus. 

Huc odoriferos, 

Huc soporiferos 

Ramos depromite, 15 

Rogos componite ; 

Ut phoenix moriar ! 

In flammis oriar ! 

LVIII. [Walraff,] Corolla Hymnorum, p. 57.— The poet has 
drawn his inspiration throughout from the Canticles. The whole 
of this beautiful composition is but the further unfolding of the 
words of the Bride, ' I am sick of love ' (ii. 5). 

7. Cf. Cant. ii. 5. 


An amor dolor sit, 

An dolor amor sit, 20 

Utrumque nescio ; 

Hoc unum sentio, 

Jucundus dolor est, 

Si dolor amor est. 

Quid, amor, crucias ? 25 

Aufer inducias, 

Lentus tyrannus es \ 

Momentum annus est ; 

Tam tarda funera 

Tua sunt vulnera. 30 

Jam vitae stamina 

Rumpe, O anima ! 

Ignis ascendere 

Gestit, et tendere 

Ad caeli atria; 35 

Haec mea patria ! 




Gen. i. 14. 

ORNARUNT terram germina, 
Nunc caelum luminaria \ 
Sole, luna, stellis depingitur, 
Quorum multus usus cognoscitur. 

Haec quaque parte condita 5 

Sursum, homo, considera ; 
Esse tuam et caeli regio 
Se fatetur horum servitio. 

Sole calet in hieme, 

Qui caret ignis munere ; 10 

Pro nocturnae lucernae gratia 

Pauper habet lunam et sidera. 

Stratis dives eburneis, 
Pauper jacet gramineis ; 

LIX. Edelestand du Meril, Poisie Popul. Lat. 1847, P- 444- 
This poem, one of a series on the successive days' work of Crea- 
tion, of a sort of Hexaemeron in verse, despite its prosaic com- 
mencement and unmelodious rhythm, rests on a true poetical foun- 
dation. Norris of Bemerton has a fine poem entitled, My Estate, 
on the same theme, see Grosart's ed., p. 125. 


Hinc avium oblectant cantica, 15 

Inde flornm spirat fragrantia. 

Impensis, dives, nimiis 

Domum casuram construis ; 

Falso sole pingis testudinem, 

Falsis stellis in caeli speciem. 20 

In vera caeli camera 
Pauper jacet pulcherrima; 
Vero sole, veris sideribus 
Istam illi depinxit Dominus. 

Opus magis eximium 25 

Est naturae quam hominum; 
Quod nec labor nec sumptus praeparat, 
Nec vetustas solvendo dissipat. 

Ministrat homo diviti, 

Angelus autem pauperi, .30 

Ut hinc quoque constet caelestia 

Quam sint nobis a Deo subdita. 

1 7 — 24. Augustine : Plus est pauperi viclere caelum stellatum 
quam diviti tectum inauratum. 

31, 32. A poem, De Contemptu Micndi, found in St. Anselm's 
Works^ pp. 195 — 201, yields the folloving lines : 

Cur dominus rerum, quare Deitatis imago 

Parva cupis? cupias maxima, magnus homo. 

Luna tibi fulget, tibi volvitur orbita solis, 
Et tibi sunt toto sidera sparsa polo. 

Nempe dies tuus est, tua nox, tuus igneus sether, 
Et tibi commutant tempora quaeque vices. 

2 5 8 


Born 1764, died 1829. 


ARX firma Deus noster est, 
Is telum, quo nitamur ; 
Is explicat ex omnibus 
Queis malis implicamur. 
Nam cui semper mos, 
] am ter terret nos : 
Per astum, per vim, 
Ssevam levat sitim : 
Nil par in terris illi. 

LX. Molmike, Hymnol. Forschungen, Stralsund, 1832, vol. ii. 
p. 250. — This is a good translation, perhaps as good as could be 
made, of Luther's ' Heldenlied,' as it well has been calied, — 
Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott : 

the hymn, among all with which he has enriched the Church, 
most characteristic of the man, the tmest utterance of his great 
heart. Much of the heroic strength of the original has vanished 
in the translation ; yet, beside its merits, which are real, it is 
interesting as shewing the eminent philologist whose work it is, 
in somewhat a novel aspect. It was first published in 1830, 
shortly after Buttmann's death, on occasion of the third jubilee to 
celebrate the publication of the Confession of Augsburg. The 
original hymn was probably composed in 1530, during the time 
when the Diet was sitting there. 


In nobis nihil situm est, 10 

Quo minus pereamus : 

Quem Deus ducem posuit, 

Is facit ut vivamus. 

Scin quis hoc potest ? 

Jesus Christus est, 15 

Qui, dux caelitum, 

Non habet semuium : 

Is vicerit profecto. 

Sit mundus plenus dsemonum, 

Nos cupiant vorare ; 20 

Non timor est : victoria 

Xil potest nos frustrare. 

Hem dux saeculi ! 

Invitus abi ! 

In nos nil potes, 25 

Jam judicatus es ; 

Vel vocula te sternat. 

Hoc verbum non pessumdabunt, 

Nec gratiam merebunt ; 

In nobis Christi Spiritus 30 

Et munera vigebunt : 

Tollant corpus, rem, 

Mundique omnem spem : 

Tollant ! jubilent ! 

Xon lucram hinc ferent ; * .35 

Manebit regnum nobis. 



CUM sit omnis homo fcenum, 
Et post foenum fiat ccenum, 
Ut quid, homo, extolleris? 
Cerne quid es, et quid eris; 
Modo flos es, et verteris 5 

In favillam cineris. 

Per setatum incrementa, 

Immo magis detrimenta, 

Ad non-esse traheris. 

Velut umbra, cum declinat, 10 

Vita surgit et festinat, 

Claudit meta funeris. 

Homo dictus es ab humo; 

Cito transis, quia fumo 

Similis efficeris. 15 

Nunquam in eodem statu 

Permanes, dum sub rotatu 

Hujus vitae volveris. 

LXI. Bernardi Opp. ed. Bened. 1719, vol. ii. p. 915 ; Rambach, 
Anthol. Christl. Gesange, p. 281. 

13. ab humd\ Quintilian (Inst. i. 6, 34) throws scorn on this 
derivation — quasi vero non omnibus animalibus eadem origo, aut 
illi primi mortales ante nomen imposuerint teme quam sibi ; but 
see Freund, Worterbuch d. lat. Sprache, s. v. Homo ; and Max 
Muller, Ou the Science of ' Langtiagc, vol. i. p. 367. 


O sors gravis ! o sors dura ! 

O lex dira, quam natura 20 

Promulgavit miseris ! 

Homo, nascens cum moerore, 

Vitam ducis cum labore, 

Et cum metu moreris. 

Ergo si scis qualitatem 25 

Tuae sortis, voluptatem 

Carnis quare sequeris? 

Memento te moriturum, 

Et post mortem id messurum, 

Quod hic seminaveris. 30 

Terram teris, terram geris, 

Et in terram reverteris, 

Qui de terra sumeris, 

Cerne quid es, et quid eris, 

^lodo flos es, et verteris 35 

In favillam cineris. 




OMNIS mundi creatura 
Quasi liber et pictura 
Nobis est, et speculum ; 
Nostrae vitse, nostrse mortis, 
Xostri status, nostrse sortis 
Fidele signaculum. 

Nostrum statum pingit rosa, 

Nostri status decens glosa, 

Npstrae vitae lectio : 

Quae dum primo mane floret, 10 

Defloratus r.os efHoret 

Vespertino senio. 

LXII. Alani Opp. ed. C. de Visch, Antwerp. 1654, p. 419 
Rambach, Anthol. Christl. Gesange, vol. i. p. 329. — This fme poem 
has found its way into very few collections of sacred Latin verse. 
Indeed the only one in which I have met it is Rambach's, and 
there two stanzas, the seventh, perhaps the finest in the whole 
poem, being one of them, are omitted. It has been translated by 
Worsley, Poems and Translations, 1863, p. 199. 

8. glosd\ G/osa, or g/ossa, is thus explained by Du Cange : 
Interpretatio, imago, exemplum rei ; it is our English gloss or 
glose ; which yet is used generally in a bad sense, the tongue (for 
the word is of course derived from yXcoaaa) being so often the setter 
forth of deceit, interpretation being so frequently misinterpretation. 
The German g/eissen, to make a fair shew, belongs probabJy to 
the same family of words. 


Ergo spirans flos exspirat, 

In pallorem dum delirat, 

Oriendo moriens. 15 

Simul vetus et novella, 

Simul senex et puella, 

Rosa marcet oriens. 

Sic setatis ver humanae 

Juventutis primo mane 20 

Reflorescit paululum. 

Mane tamen hoc excludit 

Vitse vesper, dum concludit 

Vitale crepusculum : 

Cujus decor dum perorat, 25 

Ejus decus mox deflorat 

^Etas, in qua defluit. 

Fit flos fcenum, gemma lutum, 

Homo cinis, dum tributum 

Homo morti tribuit. 30 

Cujus vita, cujus esse 

Pcena, labor, et necesse 

Vitam morte claudere. 

Sic mors vitam, risum luctus, 

Umbra diem, portum fluctus, 35 

Mane claudit vespere. 

34 — 36. Compare CalderoH, La Gran Cenobia, act 3 : 

El dia teme la noche, 
La serenidad espera 
La borrasca, el giisto vive 
A espaldas de tristeza. 


In nos primum dat insultum 

Poena, mortis gerens vultum, 

Labor, mortis histrio : 

Nos proponit in laborem, 40 

Nos assumit in dolorem, 

Mortis est conclusio. 

Ergo clausum sub hac lege 

Statum tuum, homo, lege, 

Tuum esse respice : 45 

Quid fuisti nasciturus, 

Quid sis praesens, quid futurus, 

Diligenter inspice. 

Luge pcenam, culpam plange, 

Motus fraena, fastum frange, 5« 

Pone supercilia. 

Mentis Rector et Auriga, 

Mentem rege, fluxus riga, 

Ne fluant in devia. 



NUPER eram locuples, multisque beatus amicis, 
Et risere diu fata secunda mihi : 
Jurares Superos intra mea vota teneri, 

Et res occasum dedidicisse pati. 
Saepe mihi dixi : Quorsum tam prospera rerum ? 5 

Quid sibi vult tantus, tam citus agger opum ? 
Hei mihi ! nulla fides, nulla est constantia rebus, 

Res ipsae quid sint mobilitate docent. 
Res hominum atque homines levis alea versat in horas, 

Et venit a summo summa ruina gradu. 10 

Quicquid habes hodie, cras te fortasse relinquet, 

Aut modo, dum loqueris, desinit esse tuum. 
Has ludit fortuna vices, regesque superbos 

Aut servos humiles non sinit esse diu. 
Ecce quid est hominis, quid jure vocare paterno, 15 

Qua miser ille sibi plaudere dote potest? 
Hoc est, hoc hominis, semper cum tempore labi, 

Et semper quadam conditione mori. 
Est hominis nudum nasci, nudumque reverti 

Ad matrem, nec opes tollere posse suas, 20 

Est hominis putrere solo, saniemque fateri, 

Et miseris gradibus in cinerem redigi. 

LXIII. Hildeberti et Marbodi Opp. p. 1344. Hommey, Sup~ 
plementum Patrum. p. 453. 


Istius est hasres homo prosperitatis, et illum 

Certius his dominum praedia nulla manent. 
Res et opes prsestantur ei, famulantur ad horam, 25 

Et locuples mane, vespere pauper erit. 
Nemo potest rebus jus assignare manendi, 

Quae nutus hominum non didicere pati. 
Jus illis Deus ascribit, statuitque teneri 

Legibus et nutu stare vel ire suo. 30 

Ille simul semel et solus praevidit et egit 

Cuncta, nec illa aliter vidit, agitque aliter. 
Ut vidit facienda facit, regit absque labore, 

Distinguit formis, tempore, fine, loco. 
Crescendi studium rebus metitur, et illas 35 

Secretis versat legibus, ipse manens. 
Ipse manens, dum cuncta movet, mortalibus aegris 

Consulit, et qua sit spes statuenda docet. 
Si fas est credi te quicquam posse vel esse, 

O fortuna, quod es, quod potes Ipse dedit. 40 
Pace tua, fortuna, loquar, blandire, minare. 

Nil tamen unde querar, aut bene laeter ages. 
Ille potens, mitis tenor et concordia rerum, 

Quidquid vult in me digerat, ejus ero. 



ACOBUS de Benedictis, or familiarly Jacopone, the 
probable author of the following poem, was a memor- 
able man and of a remarkable history. There are two 
very careful sketches of his life and writings, drawn en- 
tirely from the original sources : one by Mohnike (Studien, 
Stralsund, 1825, vol. i. pp. 335-406), another by Ozanam 
(Les Poetes Franciscains en Italie au Treizibne Siec/e, 
Paris, pp. 164-272) ; though indeed that in the Biogra- 
phie Universelle is far from being slightly or inaccu- 
rately done. See too a valuable article about him, 
though with some inaccuracies, in Macmillarts Magazine, 
August, 1873. The year of his birth is not known, but, 
as he died in 1306 at a great age, it must have fallen 
early in the preceding century. He was born at Todi in 
Umbria, of a noble family, and lived a secular life, until 
some remarkable circumstances attending the violent 
death of his wife (see a fine sonnet on the subject by 
Matthew Arnold), made so deep an impression upon 
him, that he withdrew himself from the world, and 
making choice of that which w r as then counted exclu- 
sively the religious life, entered the Order of St. Francis, 
just then at its highest reputation for sanctity ; though 
never willing to be more than a lay brother therein. 

Of his Latin poems I said in my first edition that only 
this and the Stabat Mater had been preserved \ though 
of Italian spiritual songs and satires a very large amount : 
but Ozanam has since published, though apparently from 


an imperfect MS., a pendant to that poem, very beautiful, 
though not altogether its equal. It is the Stabat Mater of 
the Blessed Virgin by the cradle of Bethlehem, and not 
by the cross of Calvary ; and has been republished with 
a translation by Dr. Neale, London, 1866. The freedom 
with which, in his vernacular poems, Jacopone treated the 
abuses of his time, above all those of the hierarchy, drew 
on him long imprisonments, and he only went out of 
prison when his persecutor, Boniface the Eighth, whom 
to have had for an adversary was itself an honour, went 
in. An earnest humourist, he carried the being a fool for 
Christ into every-day life. The things which with this 
intent he did, some morally striking enough, others mere 
extravagances and pieces of gross spiritual buffoonery — 
wisdom and folly, such as we often find, side by side, in 
the saints of the Roman Calendar — are largely reported 
by Wadding, the historian of the Franciscan Order, and 
by Lisco, in a separate monograph on the Stabat Mater, 
Berlin, 1843, p. 23. These often leave one in doubt 
whether he was indeed perfectly sound in his mind, or 
only a Christian Brutus, feigning folly, that he might im- 
press his wisdom the more deeply, and utter it with more 
freedom. Balde, the Bavarian Jesuit (see p. 272), has 
recorded in a singularly graceful ode (Silv. vii. 2) what 
his feelings wete, on first making acquaintance with the 
life and writings of Jacopone : 

Tristis nsenia funerum, 

Vanae cum gemitu cedite lacrimx ! 

Me virtutis iter docent 

Intermista jocis gaudia mutuis ; 

Me ccelo lepor inserit ; 

Me plus quam rigidi vita Pachomii, 


Jacopone, trahit tua, 

Florens lcetitiis mille decentibus. 

Sancto diceris omnia 

Risu perdomuisse ; egregia quidem 

Dementis specie viri. 

Chaldreosque magos, et Salomoniam 

Transgressus sapientiam, 

Curarum vacuus, plenior setheris, 

Non urbis, neque dolii, 

Sed mundi fueras publicus incola. 

The key-note to this beautiful composition is supplied 
by the epitaph which graces a monument raised to Jaco- 
pone in 1596, at his native Todi : 

Ossa B. Jacoponi de Benedictis, Tudertini, qui, stultus propter 
Christum, nova mundum arte delusit, et caelum rapuit. 


CUR mundus militat sub vana gloria, 
Cujus prosperitas est transitoria? 
Tam cito labitur ejus potentia, 
Quam vasa figuli, quae sunt fragilia. 

Plus fide litteris scriptis in glacie, 
Quam mundi fragilis vanse fallacioe ; 
Fallax in praemiis, virtutis specie, 
Qui nunquam habuit tempus fiduciae. 

LXIV. Bemardi Opp. ed. Bened. vol. ii. p. 913 ; Mohnike, 
Hyvinol. Forschungen, vol. ii. p. 173. — Tusser has translated this 
hymn. Another early translation is to be found in The Paradise of 
Dainty Devices, being the first poem there ; and an earlier still, 
in Hymns to the Virgin and to Christ, published by the Early 
English Text Society, p. 36. 


Credendum magis est viris fallacibus, 

Quam mundi miseris prosperitatibus, 10 

Falsis insaniis et vanitatibus, 

Falsisque studiis et voluptatibus. 

Quam breve festum est haec mundi gloria ! 
Ut umbra hominis, sic ejus gaudia, 
Quse semper subtrahunt aeterna praemia, 15 

Et ducunt hominem ad dura devia. 

O esca vermium ! o massa pulveris ! 
O ros, o vanitas, cur sic extolleris? 

9. viris\ Something here is amiss. The viri fallaces, them- 
selves constituting the world, cannot becompared with it. Mohnike 
(i. 377) proposes to read ventis ; yet a later suggestion which he 
makes (ii. 177), vitris fallacibus, is better. Opitz, as he observes, 
in his grand old German translation of the hymn, must have so 
read, for he writes : 

Lieber will ich Glauben fassen 

Anf ein Glas, das bald zerfallt, 

Als mich trosten mit den Schatzen, 

Und dem Gliicke dieser Welt. 

18. ros, vanitas] Some editions read, roris vanitas ; 
others, nox, vanitas ; Mohnike suggests O flos, vanitas, with 
allusion to such passages as Job xiv. 2 ; Ps. ciii. 15 ; Isai. xxviii. 
1, 4; 1 Pet. i. 24. Yet this image the poet seems to have re- 
served for the second line of the next stanza ; while the early 
drying up of the morning dew is also a scriptural image for that 
which quickly passes away and disappears (Hos. vi. 4 ; xiii. 3) ; 
and one appearing in medieval, as indeed in all, poetry. Thus 
the author of the Carmen Parceneticum, sometimes ascribed to 
St. Bernard (Opp. vol. ii. p. 910, Bened. ed.) : 

Quam male fraudantur, qui stulte ludificantur ; 
Qui propter florem mundi vanumque decorem, 
Qui prius apparet quasi ros, et protinus aret, 
Vadit in infernum, perdens diadema supernum. 


Ignorans penitus, utrum cras vixeris, 

Fac bonum omnibus, quamdiu poteris. 20 

Haec carnis gloria, quae tanti penditur, 
Sacris in litteris flos foeni dicitur ; 
Ut leve folium, quod vento rapitur, 
Sic vita hominis luci subtrahitur. 

Nil tuum dixeris quod potes perdere, 25 

Quod mundus tribuit, intendit rapere : 
Superna cogita, cor sit in aethere, 
Felix, qui potuit mundum contemnere ! 

Dic, ubi Salomon, olim tam nobilis, 

Vel ubi Sampson est, dux invincibilis, 30 

Vel pulcher Absalon, vultu mirabilis, 

Vel dulcis Jonathas, multum amabilis? 

Quo Caesar abiit, celsus imperio, 

Vel Dives splendidus, totus in prandio? 

Dic, ubi Tullius, clarus eloquio, 35 

Vel Aristoteles, summus ingenio ? 

Tot clari proceres, tot rerum spatia, 

Tot ora praesulum, tot regna fortia, 

Tot nmndi principes, tanta potentia, 

In ictu oculi clauduntur omnia. 40 

40. Some lines from a solemn funeral hymn by St. John of 
Damascus (Goar, Euchologium sive Rituale Grcecorum, Venet. 1730, 
p. 428) may here be brought into comparison : 

ttov io~r\v 7] rov koctjxov irpocnrddeia ; 

ttov iar\v i) rwv 7rpoo~Kaipccv (pavracria ; 

irov io~T\v 6 xp VG0S K ft l ° apyvpos ; 

ttov ecrrlv roov oIk€tqov t) TrXrj/uL/jLvpa Kal 6 Oopv&os ; 

irdvra kovis, Trdvra re(ppa, Trdvra o~Kid. 



JACOB BALDE, born at Ensisheim in Alsace, in 
T603, entered the Order of the Jesuits in 1624, and 
died in 1668. The greater part of his life was spent in 
Bavaria ; where he could watch only too well the un- 
speakable miseries of the Thirty Years' War. Filling up, 
as that war did, exactly the central period of his life, he 
was spectator of these from first to last : and many pages 
of his poetry bear witness with what a bleeding heart he 
beheld the wounds of his native land. This sympathy 
of his, so true and so profound, with the sufiferings of 
Germany, gives a reality to his verse which modern Latin 
poetry so often wants. Yet with all this, and with a free 
recognition, not of his talents merely, but of his genius, I 
must think that there is some exaggeration in the lan- 
guage in which it has become the fashion to speak of 
him among his fellow-countrymen. They exalt him as 
the first of modern Latin poets — not, of course, as having 
reached the highest perfection of classical style, for it 
would be absurd to attribute this praise to him, which 
every page of his writings would refute — but for the 
grandeur of his thoughts, the originality and boldness of 
his imagery • so that they regard him, not so much as an 
accomplished Latin versifier, but rather as a great Ger- 
man poet in the disguise of a foreign tongue. It was not 
one of his co-religionists, but Herder, who first began 
to speak this language about him, and who indeed re- 

BALDE 273 

vived his forgotten memory, publishing in his Terpsichore 
a translation of a large number of his odes. Augustus 
Schlegel followed in the same track, with yet more enthu- 
siastic praise : ! and since his time several editions of 
Balde's works, entire or selected, have been published, 
thus two by Orelli, Zurich, 1805, 1818 ; while transla- 
tions of the whole, or a portion of them, have appeared. 

Xor is his poetry, which has thus been brought to 
light a second time, inconsiderable in bulk. It fills four 
closely-printed volumes. Xext to his odes his Solaiium 
Podagrico7-um (Munich, 1661) has perhaps been the most 
widely read. The gout, it must be owned, is a some- 
what ghastly subject for merriment, above all when the 
jest is continued through some thousands of lines, The 
poem, whose tone is mock-heroic, is intended no doubt 
to set forth the praises of abstemiousness. Thus one 
of the most frequent topics of consolation which he 
offers to the martyrs to this disease, is the dignity of their 
complaint (" lordly gout," as Swift calls it, locuples pod- 
agra, as Juvenal, /kmtojitwxos 0£a, as Lucian) — that it is 
only the rich and the luxurious whom it honours with its 
visits ; as in these lines : 

1 These are Schlegel's words : Ein tiefes, regsames, oft schwar- 
merisch ungestiimes Gefiihl, ein Einbildungskraft, woraus starke 
und wunderbare Bilder sich zahllos hervordrangen, ein erfinder- 
ischer, immer an entfemten Yergleichungen, an iiberraschenden 
Einkleidungen geschaftiger Witz, ein scharfer Verstand, grosse 
sittliche Schnellkraft und Selbstandigkeit, kiihne Sicherheit des 
Geistes, welche sich immer eigene "Wege wahlt, und auch die 
ungebahntesten nicht scheut : alle diese Eigenschaften erscheinen 
in Balde's Werken allzu hervorstechend, als dass man ihn nicht 
fiir einen ungewohnlich reich begabten Dichter erkennen miisste. 


274 BALDE 

Morbus hic induitur gemmis et torquibus aureis, 
Armillasque gerit manibus colloque smaragdos : 
Non est communis lixis vulgoque frequenti. 
Cerdones refugit, nec de lodice paratur ; 
Maecenas te laute petens, multumque supine : 
Seligit aulai thalamos in turribus altis, 
Auratumque habitat, vel eburno ex dente lacunar ; 
Fulcitur plumis et pulvinaribus albis. 
Vive diu infelix, morbo indignissimus isto. 

Now and then, however, the religious earnestness, 
which is the ground-tone of all which Balde writes, 
openly appears, as when he reminds the fretful and 
impatient sufTerer, of One who had no such solaces and 
alleviations of pain, as are largely granted to him : 

. . . non dormiit ostro, 
Mollibus effultus cygnis, foliisque rosarum : 
Amxus fuit ILLE cruci, clavisque quatc: 
Ex ferro fossus terram inter et astra pependit ; 
Felle sitim relevans, pertusus vocibus aures 
Sacrilegis ; toto laniatum corpore funus. 
Te capit infusum lectica simillima Ledae, 
Invitum qu~e vel queat invitare soporem ; 
Accinit Amphion, et fundit dulcia Rhenus ; 
Demulcet conjux ; lepidi solantur amici ; 
Et potes, heu ! lecto trux indignarier isti, 
Duraque fata queri, quce sunt mollissima fatu. 

These brief quotations may suffice to give a slight 
conception of what the character of this poem is. But it 
iSj undoubtedly, as a lyric poet that Balde is greatest \ 
and in that aspect the grand poem which follows will 
shew him. 





Inter funebres tasdas, ad modulatos Umbrarum 

passus decantandum. 

EHEU, quid homines sumus ? 
Vanescimus, sicuti fumus ; 
Vana, vana terrigenum sors, 
Cuncta dissipat improba mors. 

Exstincta est Leopoldina, 5 

Frustra clamata Lucina; 

Lacrymosa puerperae mors ! 

Miseranda muliemm sors ! 

Cum falcibus ageret sestas, 

Est et haec succisa majestas : 10 

Ah, aristae purpurese sors ! 

Sicne dira te messuit mors? 

LXV. Balde, Poemata, Colonias, 1660, vol. iv. p. 424. — The 
only translation of this poem, one which almost defies transla- 
tion, is to be found in The Southern Magazine, U.S., Jan. 1873, 
p. 43. The empress Leopoldina, wife of Ferdinand the Third, 
died in childbirth, at Vienna, after one year's marriage, in the 
year 1649. The great commonplaces of death, which, if always 
old, are yet always new, have seldom clothed themselves in grander 
form, or found a more solemn utterance, than they do in this sub- 
lime poem. How noble the third, the fourth, and the sixth stanzas, 
and how much to be^regretted that Balde so seldom exchanged his 
alcaic and other classical metres for these Christian rhythms. 

9. a:stas\ The empress died on the 7th of August. 

276 BALDE 

Quo more vulgaris urtica, 
Jacet haec quoque regia spica ; 

Suo condidit horreo mors, 15 

Brevi posuit angulo sors. 

Ut bulla defluxit aquosa, 
Subsedit, ut vespere rosa; 

Brevis omnis est flosculi sors, 

Rapit ungue celerrima mors. 20 

Quam manibus osseis tangit, 
Crystallinam phialam frangit ; 

O inepta et rustica mors ! 

O caduca juvenculae sors ! 

Ubi nunc decor ille genarum, 25 

Ubi formae miraculum rarum ? 

Bina lumina subruit mors, 

Cceca tenebras intulit sors. 

17. Ut bulld] Crashaw's Latin poem, entitled Bulla {Delights 
ofthe Jfuses, 164S, p. 54) can find no place here. I wish it might, 
for it is one of the richest and most gorgeous pieces of painting in 
verse which anywhere I know — far more poetical than any of his 
English poetiy, of which it shares the conceits and other faults. 
These are a few of the lines in which the bubble gives an account 
of itself : 

Sum venti ingenium breve, 

Flos sum, scilicet, aeris, 

Sidus scilicet aequoris, 

Natuxae jocus aureus, 

Natnrae vaga fabula, 

Natnrse breve somnium, 

Aurae filia perfidae, 

Et risus facilis parens ; 

Tantum gutta superbior, 

Fortunatius et lutum. 


Ubi corporis bella figura ! 

Ubi lactis ostrique mixtura ! 30 

Lac effudit in cespitem sors, 

Texit ostrum sandapila mors. 

Ubi rubra coralla sunt oris ! 
Ubi retia, crines, amoris ! 

Parcse rapuit forficem sors, 35 

Scidit ista caesariem mors. 

Ubi cervix et manus eburna ! 
Heu funebri jacent in urna ! 

Atra nives imminuit sors, 

Colla pressit tam candida mors. 40 

Quae pulcrior fuit Aurora, 
Hanc, Caesaris aula, deplora ; 

Vana species, lubrica sors, 

Tetra facies, pallida mors. 

Quae vides has cunque choreas, 45 

Augebis et ipsa mox eas ; 

Subitam movet aleam sors, 

Certa rotat hastilia mors. 

Huc prompta volensque ducetur, 

Capillis invita trahetur ; 50 

Ducet inevitabilis sors, 

Trahet inexorabilis mors. 

Quod es, fuimus : sumus, quod eris \ 
Praecessimus, tuque sequeris ; 

Volat ante levissima sors, 55 

Premit arcu vestisfia mors. 

278 BALDE 

Nihil interest pauper an dives, 

Non amplius utique vives; 

Simul impulit clepsydram sors, 

Vitae stamina lacerat mors. go 

Habere nil juvat argentum, 

Nil regna praetendere centum; 
Sceptra sarculis abigit sors, 
Ridet albis haec dentibus mors. 

Nihil interest, turpis an pulcra, 65 

Exspectant utramque sepulcra; 
Legit lappas et lilia sors, 
Violasque cum carduis mors. 

Nec interest, vilis an culta, 

Trilustris, an major adulta \ 70 

Vere namque novissimo sors, 

Populatur et hyeme mors, 

Linquenda est aula cum casa, 
Colligite singuli vasa ; 

Jubet ire promiscua sors, 75 

Ire cogit indomita mors. 

Ex mille non remanet unus, 
Mox omnes habebitis funus ; 

Ite, ite, quo convocat sors, 

Imus, imus, hoc imperat mors. 80 

Ergo vale, o Leopoldina, 

Nunc umbra, sed olim regina; 
Vale, tibi nil nocuit sors, 
Vale, vale, nam profuit mors. 


Bella super et Suecica castra, 85 

Xubesque levaris, et astra; 

Penetrare quo nequeat sors, 

Multo minus attonita mors. 

Inde mundi despiciens molem, 

Lunam pede calcas et solem ■ 9o 

Dulce sonat ex sethere vox, 

Hyems transiit, occidit nox. 

Surge, veni ; quid, sponsa, moraris ? 
Veni, digna caelestibus aris \ 

Imber abiit, mcestaque crux, 95 

Lucet, io, perpetua Lux. 

85. Snecica castra] A fine alhision to the recent desolations 
of Germany. It was only four years before that the smoke of 
the Swedish watch-fires had been visible from the ramparts of 
Vienna. It is true that when the empress died, peace had been 
restored for nearly a year, the Treaty of Westphalia having been 
signed in October, 1648. But the wounds of Germany had scarcely 
begun to heal. 



MARBOD, born in 1035, of an illustrious family in 
Anjou, was chosen bishop of Rennes in 1095 or 
in the year following, and having governed with admir- 
able prudence his diocese for thirty years, died in 1125. 
He has left a large amount pf Latin poetry, in great part 
the versified legends of saints. His poem De Gemmis 
was a great favourite in the Middle Ages, and has been 
often reprinted. It is perhaps worth reading, not as 
poetry, for as such it is of very slight value, but as con- 
taining the whole rich mythology of the period in regard 
of precious stones and the virtues popularly attributed to 
them. His poems are for the most part written in 
leonine verse, but he has shewn in more than one no 
contemptibie skill in the management of the classical 


DEUS-HOMO, Rex caelorum, 
Miserere miserorum ; 
Ad peccandum proni sumus, 
Et ad humum redit humus : 

LXVI. Hildeberii et Ma rbodi Opp. p. 1557. 


Tu minam nostram fulci 5 

Pietate tua dulci. 

Quid est homo, proles Ada^ ? 

Germen necis dignum clade. 

Quid est homo nisi vermis, 

Res infirma, res inermis. 10 

Ne digneris huic irasci, 

Qui non potest mundus nasci : 

Noli, Deus, hunc damnare, 

Qui non potest non peccare ; 

Judicare non est aequum 15 

Creaturam, non est tecum : 

Non est miser homo tanti, 

Ut respondeat Tonanti. 

Sicut umbra, sicut fumus, 

Sicut fcenum facti sumus : l 20 

Miserere, Rex caelorum, 

Miserere miserorum. 

1 Wenzeslaus von Zedlitz, a German jurisconsult (1551 — 16 13) 
caused the following lines to be written on the wall of his study : 

Vita viatoris quasi transitus ; omnia finem, 

Quoecunque immundus mundus honorat, habent. 

Transit honos, transit fortuna, pecunia transit; 
Mente Deo similis, corpore transit homo. 

Transivere patres, et nos transibimus omnes ; 
In caelo patriam qui bene transit, habet. 



PETER DAMIAXI, cardinal-bishop of Ostia, was 
born at Ravenna. in 1002, and died in 1072. Pro- 
foundly impressed witb the horrible corruption of his 
age, and the need of a reformation which should begin 
with the clergy themselves, he was the enthusiastic friend 
and helper of Hildebrand, his Sanctus Satanas y as fondly 
and with a marvellous insight into the heights and depths 
of his character, he calls him, in all the good and in all 
the evil which he wrought for the Church. He has left 
a considerable body of Latin verse ; but, not to say that 
much of it is deeply tinged with superstitions of which he 
was only too zealous a promoter, there is little of it, 
which, even were this otherwise, one would much be 
tempted to extract save this, and the far-grander poem 
De Gaudiis Paradisi, which will be found a little later in 
this volume. Yet doubtless his epitaph, written by him- 
self, possesses a solemn and a stately grandeur. It is as 
follows : 

Quod nunc es, fuimus : es, quod sumus, ipse futurus ; 

His sit nulla fides, quae peritura vides. 
Frivola sinceris praecurrunt somnia veris, 

Succedunt brevibus saecula temporibus. 
Vive memor mortis, quo semper vivere possis ; 

Quidquid adest, transit ; quod manet, ecce venit. 
Quam bene providit, qui te, male munde, reliquit, 

Mente prius carni, quam tibi carne mori. 
Caelica terrenis, prsefer mansura caducis, 

Mens repetat proprium libera principium : 


Spiritus alta petat, quo prodit fonte recurrat, 
Sub se despiciat quicquid in ima gravat. 

Sis memor, oro, mei : — cineres pius aspice Petri ; 
Cum prece, cum gemitu dic : Sibi parce, Deus. 

It is nothing wonderful that he who had so realized 
what life and death are, did not wait till the latter had 
stripped him of his worldly honours, but himself antici- 
pated that hour ; having some time previously laid down 
his cardinal's hat, that what remained of his life he might 
spend in retirement and in prayer. Probably he had 
already so done, when this epitaph was composed. 
He died as abbot of Sta. Croce d'Avellano in the States 
of the Church. 


(""* RAVI me terrore pulsas, vitae dies ultima ; 
JT Mceret cor, solvuntur renes, laesa tremunt viscera, 
Tuam speciem dum sibi mens depingit anxia. 

Quis enim pavendum illud explicet spectaculum, 
Quum, dimenso vitae cursu, carnis segra nexibus 5 

Anima luctatur solvi, propinquans ad exitum? 

Perit sensus, lingua riget, resolvuntur oculi, 
Pectus palpitat, anhelat raucum guttur hominis, 
Stupent membra, pallent ora, decor abit corporis. 

LXVII. Corner, Prompt. Devot. p. 701 ; Rambach, Anthol. 
Christl. Gescinge, p. 238 ; Daniel, Thes. Hymnol. vol. i. p. 224 ; 
vol. iv. p. 291. — There is a translation by Worsley, Poems and 
Translations, p. 205. 


Praesto sunt et cogitatus, verba. cursus, opera, 10 

Et prae oculis nolentis glomerantur omnia : 
Illuc tendat, huc se vertat, coram videt posita. 

Torquet ipsa reum sinum mordax conscientia, 

Plorat apta corrigendi defluxisse tempora ; 

Plena luctu caret fructu sera pcenitentia. 15 

Falsa tunc dulcedo carnis in amarum vertitur, 
Quando brevem voluptatem perpes poena sequitur ; 
Jam quod magnum credebatur nil fuisse cernitur. 

Quaeso, Christe, rex invicte, tu succurre misero, 

Sub extrema mortis hora cum jussus abiero, 20 

Xullum in me jus tyranno praebeatur impio. 

Cadat princeps tenebrarum, cadat pars tartarea; 
Pastor. ovem jam redemptam tunc reduc ad patriam, 
Ubi te videndi causa perfruar in saecula. 

24. I know no fitter place to append a poem, which can claim 
no room in the body of this volume, being almost without any 
distinctly Christian element whatever, and little more than a mere 
worldling's lamentation at leaving a world which he knows he has 
abused, yet would willingly, if he might, continue still longer to 
abuse. There is something in the tone even more than in the 
words of the poem which sounds like the voice of a worldling 
brought to bay, and gives to it the character of a modern echo 
of Horace's Eheu fugaces, &c. But even from that something 
may be learned ; and there is a force and originality about the 
composition which leads me to insert it here, especially as it is 
very far from common. I would indeed gladly know something 
more about it. I find it in a Psalteriolnm Cantiomun Catho- 
licariim, Coloniae, 1813, p. 283, with the title De Morte, but 
with the fifth, sixth, and seventh stanzas omitted ; and in its 



fuller form in KonigsfelcTs Latein. Hymnen und Gesdnge, Bonn, 
1847. This last is a small and rather indifferent collection of 
medieval Latin poetry, with German translations annexed — so 
carelessly edited as to inspire no confidence in the text. Daniel 
also has it (T/ies. Hymno/. vol. iv. p. 351), but avowedly copied 
from Konigsfeld. It may be found also in the following collections : 
Hymnarium, Bliithen Latein. Kirchen-Poesie, Halle, 1868; and in 
Lebrecht Dreves' Lieder der Kirche, Schaffhausen, 1868. The 
thoughts have a more modern air about them, than that the poem 
can be properly included in a collection of medieval verse at all. 
It bears the not very appropriate title of Cyg?ius Exspirans, and 
is as follows : 

Parendum est, cedendum est, Lucentia, fulgentia 

Claudenda vitae scena ; Gemmis valete tecta, 

Est jacta sors, me vocat mors, Seu marmore, seu ebore 

Hsec hora est postrema : Supra nubes erecta. 

Valete res, valete spes ; Ad parvulum me loculum 

Sic finit cantilena. Mors urget equis vecta. 

O magna lux, sol, mundi dux, Lucretiae, quas specie 

Est concedendum fatis ; 
Duc lineam eclipticam, 
Mihi iuxisti satis : 
Nox incubat ; fax occidit ; 
Jam portum subit ratis. 

Tu, Cynthia argentea, 
Vos, aurei planetae, 
Cum stellulis, ocellulis, 
Nepotibus lucete ; 
Fatalia, letalia 
Mi nunciant cometas. 

Ter centies, ter millies 
Vale, immunde munde ! 
Instabilis et labilis, 
Vale, orbis rotunde ! 
Mendaciis, fallaciis 
Lusisti me abunde. 

Gypsata me cepistis, 
Imagines, voragines ! 
Quas mentem sorbuistis, 
En oculos, heu ! scopulos, 
Extinguit umbra tristis. 

Tripudia, diludia, 
Et fescennini chori, 
Quiescite, raucescite ; 
Praeco divini fori, 
Mors, intonat et insonat 
Hunc lessum ; Debes mori. 

Deliciae, lautitise 

Mensarum cum culina ; 

Cellaria, bellaria, 

Et coronata vina, 

Vos nauseo, dum haurio 

Quem scyphum mors propinat. 



Facessite, putrescite, 
Odores, vestimenta ; 
Rigescite, delicioe, 
Libidinum fomenta ! 
Deformium me vennium 
Manent operimenta. 

O culmina, heu ! fulmina, 
Horum fugax honorum, 
Tam subito dum subeo 
JEternitatis domum. 
Ridiculi sunt tituli ; 
Foris et agunt momum. 

Lectissimi, carissimi 
Amici et sodales, 
Heu ! insolens et impudens 
Mors interturbat sales. 
Sat lusibus indulsimus : 
Extremum dico vale ! 

Tu denique, corpus, vale, 
Te, te citabit totum [? forum] : 
Te conscium, te socium 
Dolorum et gaudiorum ! 
yEqualis nos exspectat sors — 
Bonorum vel malorum. 

Of this poem there is a translation, preserving to a remarkable 
extent the characteristics of the original, by Erastus C. Benedict, 
Thc Hytnn of Hildcbcrt and othcr Mcdicval Pecms, p. 133, New 
York, 1S69 ; another, also a successful one, by G. Herbert Sass, 
this also from America, being published in Thc Southcrn Magaxint ; 
a third, best perhaps of all, by D. F. M'Carthy, in Thc Montk s 
March 1S72, p. 204; and a fourth in Hymns of ' the Latin Church, 
1S70, by D. T. Morgan, p. 58. There is that in it which causes 
it to lose little by translation. 

If any reader of these pages should be able to give me some 
more information about this'remarkable poem, and the source from 
which it is derived, or even to indicate to me any earlier collections 
than those I have named, in which it is to be found, the communi- 
cation would be welcome to me. Dreves suggests that it may 
possibly be discovered among the earlier Jesuit collections of Latin 
poetry. I scarcely think so. They would hardly have made a 
venture such as this, bound in so closely as they were in the bonds 
of the classical metres. 




JAM moesta quiesce querela, 
Lacrimas suspendite, matres, 
Nullus sua pignora plangat, 
Mors haec reparatio vitae est. 

Sic semina sicca virescunt, 
Jam mortua jamque sepulta, 

LXVIII. Prudentii Opp. ed. Obbarius, 1845, P- 4 1 \ Daniel, 
Thes. Hymnol. vol. i. p. 137. — These lines, the crowning glory of 
the poetiy of Prudentius, form only a part (the concluding part) of 
his tenth CatJwnerinon ; but it has long been the custom to con- 

>template them apart from their context, and as an independent 
poem. This continued till a late day as the favourite funeral-hymn 
in the Evangelical Church in Germany, being used either in the 
original, or in the grand old translation, Hort auf mit Trauern und 
Klagen. There is a fine translation into English by Isaac Williams 
in Lord Selborne's Book of Praise, p. 318; and a more recent, 
by Dr. Neale, in the metre of the original, but without rhyme, 
commencing thus : 

t l Each sorrowful mourner be silent, 
Fond mothers, give over your w r eeping ; 
None grieve for those pledges as perished, 
This dying is life's reparation.' 

Far earlier than either of these is a translation, or paraphrase 
rather, by Sir John Beaumont, Grosart's edit. p. 231. 


Quse reddita caespite ab imo 
Veteres meditantur aristas. 

Xunc suscipe, terra, fovendum, 
Gremioque hunc concipe molli : 10 

Hominis tibi membra sequestro, 
Generosa et fragmina credo. 

Animae fuit haec domus olim, 

Factoris ab ore creatae, 

Fervens habitavit in istis 15 

Sapientia principe Christo. 

Tu depositum tege corpus, 

Non immemor ille requiret 

Sua munera fictor et auctor, 

Propriique aenigmata vultus. 20 

Veniant modo tempora justa, 
Cum spem Deus impleat omnem, 
Reddas patefacta necesse est, 
Qualem tibi trado figuram. 

Non, si cariosa vetustas 25 

Dissolverit ossa favillis, 
Fueritque cinisculus arens 
Minimi mensura pugilli : 

Nec, si vaga flamina et aurae, 

Vacuum per inane volantes, 30 

Tulerint cum pulvere nervos, 

Hominem periisse licebit. 

17 — 32. We may compare with these stanzas the latter chapters 
of Tertullian's treatise, De Resztrr. Carnis. 


Sed dum resolubile corpus 
Revocas, Deus, atque reformas, 
Quanam regione jubebis 35 

Animam requiescere puram ? 

Gremio senis addita sancti 

Recubabit, ut est Eleazar, 

Quem floribus undique septum 

Dives procul aspicit ardens. 40 

Sequimur tua dicta, Redemptor, 
Quibus atra morte triumphans, 
Tua per vestigia mandas 
Socium crucis ire latronem. 

Patet ecce fidelibus ampli 45 

Via lucida jam Paradisi, 
Licet et nemus illud adire, 
Homini quod ademerat anguis, 

Nos tecta fovebimus ossa 

Violis et fronde frequente, 50 

Titulumque et frigida saxa 

Liquido spargemus odore. 

38. Eleazar\ = Lazarus, Luke xvi. 20. 



CREDERE quid dubitem fieri quod posse probatur, 
Cujus et ipse typum naturae munere gesto ? 
Quaque die somno, ceu mortis imagine pressus, 
Rursus et evigilans veluti de morte resurgo ; 

LXIX. Hildeberti et Marbodi Opp. p. 1615. — These lines 
attest the very respectable mastery of the classical hexameter, 
possessed in the eleventh and twelfth century. The arguments 
for a resurrection drawn from the analogies of the natural world 
had of course continually been handled before, by none perhaps so 
memorably as by Tertullian, De Res. Carnis, 12 ; De Animd^ 43 ; 
in whose footsteps Marbod here very closely treads. Compare 
Clement of Rome, Ep. to Corinthians, § 24 ; and the Panegyruus 
of Paulinus of Nola. 

3. mortis imagine] Compare the fine address to Sleep in the 
Hercules Furens of Seneca : 

Pavidum leti genus humanum 
Cogis longam discere mortem ; 

and the same is very often beautifuliy brought out by Calderon ; 
thus in his sublime Auto, La Cena de Baltasar : 

Descanso del sueno hace Cada dia, pues rendida 

El hombre, ay Dios, sin La vida a un breve 

que advierta homicida, 

Que quando duerme, y Que es su descanso no 

despierta, advierte 

Cada dia muere y nace : Una leceion que la muerte 

Que vivo cadaver yaze Le va estudiando a la vida. 


Ipsa mihi sine voce loquens natura susurrat : 5 

Post somnum vigilas, post mortis tempora vives. 

Clamat idem mundus, naturaque provida rerum, 

Quas Deus humanis sic condidit usibus aptas, 

Ut possint homini quaedam signare futura. 

Mutat luna vices, defunctaque lumine rursum 10 

Nascitur, augmentum per menstrua tempora sumens ; 

Sol quoque, per noctem quasi sub tellure sepultus, 

Surgens mane novus reditum de morte figurat : 

Signat idem gyros agitando volubile cselum, 

Aera distinguens tenebris et luce sequente. 15 

Ipsa parens tellus quae corpora nostra receptat, 

Servat in arboribus vitae mortisque figuram, 

Et similem formam redivivis servat in herbis. 

Nudatos foliis brumali tempore ramos, 

Et velut arentes mortis sub imagine truncos 20 

In propriam speciem frondosa resuscitat aestas ; 

Quaeque peremit hyems nova gramina vere resurgunt, 

Ut suus incipiat labor arridere colonis. 

Nos quoque spes eadem manet et reparatio vitae, 

Qua revirescat idem, sed non resolubile corpus. 25 

An mihi subjectis data sit renovatio rebus, 

Totus et hanc speciem referens mihi serviat orbis, 

Me solum interea premat irreparabile damnum? 

Et quid erit causae modico cur tempore vivens, 

Optima pars mundi, vitaeque Datoris imago, 30 

Post modicum peream, sublata spe redeundi, 

At pro me factus duret per saecula mundus ? 

Nonne putas dignum magis inferiora perire 

Irreparabiliter, quam quae potiora probantur? 

Sed tamen illa manent, ergo magis ista manebunt. 35 

u 2 



CUM revolvo toto corde 
In qua mundus manet sorde, 
Totus mundus cordi sordet, 
Et cor totum se remordet 

Cum revolvo pura mente, 5 

Cadit mundus quam repente, 
Ne mens cadat cum cadente, 
Mundum fugit mens attente. 

Cum revolvo mente sana 

Quam sit stulta spes humana, 10 

A spe mentem ad spem verto, 

Et spem mundi spe subverto. 

Cum revolvo mundi laudem, 

Et mundanse laudis fraudem, 

Laus et fraus in cordis ore 15 

Idem sonant uno more. 

Cum revolvo mundi florem, 
Et quem habet flos dolorem, 
Tantus dolor est in flore, 
Ut non sit flos in dolore. 

LXX. Edelestand du Meril, Poes. Popnl. latines, 1847, P- 
114; Mone, Hyvin. lat. Med. JEvi, vol. i. p. 415. — These are 
some of the ooncluding stanzas of a poem, an earlier portion of 
which is given p. 239. 


Cum revolvo dies breves, 
Et recordor dies leves, 
Grave fit, quod fiiit leve, 
Et fit longum quod est breve. 

Cum revolvo moriturus, 25 

Quid post mortem sim futurus, 
Terret me terror futurus, 
Quem exspecto non securus. 

Terret me dies terroris, 

Irae dies et furoris, 30 

Dies luctus et mceroris, 

Dies ultrix peccatoris. 

Expavesco miser multum 

Judicis severi vultum, 

Cui latebit nil occultum, 35 

Et manebit nil inultum. 

Et quis, quseso, non timebit, 

Quando Judex apparebit, 

Ante quem ignis ardebit, 

Peccatores qui delebit? 40 

Judicabit omnes gentes, 
Et salvabit innocentes ; 
Arguet vero potentes, 
Et deliciis fruentes. 

Tunc et omnes delicati 45 

Valedicent voluptati, 
Et vacantes vanitati 
Evanescent condemnati. 


Oh quam grave, quam immite 

A sinistris erit : ' Ite/ 50 

Cum a dextris 'Yos venite' 

Dicet Rex, largitor vitae. 

Appropinquat enim dies, 

In qua justis erit quies, 

Qua cessabunt persequentes, 55 

Et regnabunt patientes ; 

Dies illa, dies vitae, 

Dies lucis inauditse, 

Qua nox omnis destruetur, 

Et mors ipsa morietur \ 60 

Ecce Rex desideratus, 
Et a justis exspectatus, 
Jam festinat exoratus, 
Ad salvandum praeparatus. 

Oh quam pium et quam gratum, 65 

Quam suave, quam beatum 
Erit tunc Jesum videre, 
His qui eum dilexere. 

Oh quam dulce, quam jucundum 

Erit tunc odisse mundum, to 

Et quam triste, quam amarum 

Habuisse mundum carum ! 

Oh beati tunc lugentes, 

Et pro Christo patientes, 

Quibus Sceculi pressura 75 

Regna dat semper mansura. 


Ibi jam non erit metus, 

Neque luctus, neque fletus, 

Non egestas, non senectus, 

Nullus denique defectus. 80 

Ibi pax erit perennis, 
Et lsetitia solennis, 
Flos et decus juventutis, 
Et perfectio salutis. 

Nemo potest cogitare 85 

Quantum erit exultare, 
Tunc in caelis habitare, 
Et cum angelis regnare. 

Ad hoc regnum me vocare, 

Juste Judex, tu dignare, 90 

Quem exspecto, quem requiro, 

Ad quem avidus suspiro. 1 

1 There are some good lines by Marbodius, Opp. 16 19, p. 1619, 
with the title Compunctio Peccatoris^ and beginning, 

Cum recordor quanta cura 
Sum sectatus peritura, 

which deal with the same argument as these. 



A PPAREBIT repentina dies magna Domini, 

Fur obscura velut nocte improvisos occupans. 
Brevis totus tunc parebit prisci luxus saeculi, 

Totum simul cum clarebit praeterisse saeculum. 
Clangor tubae per quaternas terrae plagas concinens. 

Vivos una mortuosque Christo ciet obviam. 
De caelesti Judex arce, majestate fulgidus, 

Claris ansjelorum choris comitatus aderit. 

LXXI. Thomasius, Hymnarinm, Opp. vol. ii. p. 433 ; Ram- 
bach, Anthol. Christl. Gesange, p. 126 ; Daniel, Thes. Hy?nnol. 
vol. i. p. 194. — This hymn is alphabetic. Latin hymns which 
have submitted themselves to this constraint are not very numerous ; 
and there appears something artificial in an arrangement, which, 
while it is a restraint and difnculty, confers few compensating bene- 
fits, and, when all is done, is rather for the eye than for the ear. 
In the sacred Hebrew poetry the chief examples in the kind are the 
Lamentatio?is of Jeremiah, and some Psalms which are among the 
latest in the whole collection ; see Delitzsch on Ps. xxv. This 
hymn is certainly as old as, if not much older than, the seventh 
century ; for Bede, who belongs to the end of this and the be- 
ginning of the eighth, refers to it in his work De Jletris. It was 
then almost or altogether lost sight of, till Cassander published it 
in his Hymni Ecclesiastici. Although too exclusively a working 
up of Scripture passages which relate to the last judgment, indeed 
we may say of one Scripture passage (Matt. xxv. 31—46), in a 
narrative form, and wanting the high lyrical passion of the Dies 
Inz, yet it is of a very noble simplicity, Daniel saying of it well : 
Juvat carmen fere totum e Scriptura sacra depromptum comparare 
cum celebratissimo illo extremi judicii praeconio Dies irce, dies illa, 
quo majestate et terroribus, non sancta simplicitate et fide, super- 


Erubescet orbis lunae, sol vel obscurabitur, 

Stellae cadent pallescentes, mundi tremet ambitus : 
Flamma ignis anteibit justi vultum Judicis, [10 

Caelum, terras, et profundi fluctus ponti devorans. 
Gloriosus in sublimi Rex sedebit solio, 

Angelorum tremebunda circumstabunt agmina. 
Hujus omnes ad electi colligentur dexteram, 15 

Pravi pavent a sinistris, haedi velut fcetidi : 
Ite, dicet Rex ad dextros, regnum caeli sumite, 

Pater vobis quod paravit ante omne saeculum. 
Karitate qui fraterna me juvistis pauperem, 

Caritatis nunc mercedem reportate divites. 20 

Laeti dicent: Quando, Christe, pauperem te vidimus, 

Te, Rex magne, vel egentem miserati juvimus? 
Magnus illis dicet Judex : Cum juvistis pauperem, 

Panem, domum, vestem dantes, me juvistis humiles. 
Nec tardabit et sinistris loqui justus Arbiter : 25 

In gehennse, maledicti, flammas hinc discedite : 
Obsecrantem me audire despexistis mendicum, 

Nudo vestem non dedistis, neglexistis languidum. 
Peccatores dicent: Christe, quando te vel pauperem, 

Te, Rex magne, vel infirmum contemplantes spre- 
vimus ? 30 

Quibus contra Judex altus : Mendicanti quamdiu 

Opem ferre despexistis, me sprevistis improbi. 
Retro ruent tum injusti ignes in perpetuos, 

Vermis quorum non morietur, flamma nec restin- 
guitur \ 
Satan atro cum ministris quo tenetur carcere, 35 

Fletus ubi mugitusque, strident omnes dentibus. 

12. devorans\ So Cassander, Thomasius, and Rambach. Daniel 
has decorans, but probably as a misprint. 


Tunc fideles ad caelestem sustollentur patriam, 

Choros inter angelorum regni petent gaudia : 
Urbis summse Hierusalem introibunt gloriam, 

Vera lucis atque pacis in qua fulget visio, 40 

Xristum Regem, jam paterna claritate splendidum, 

Ubi celsa beatorum contemplantur agmina. 
Ydri fraudes ergo cave, infirmantes subleva, 

Aurum temne, fuge luxus, si vis astra petere : 
Zona clara castitatis lumbos nunc accingere, 45 

In occursum magni Regis fer ardentes lampadas. 

43 Ydri\ for Hydri. The Latin language possessing originally 
no y, and every Greek word beginning with v which had been 
naturalized in the language, being necessarily aspirated, it was 
only by such an irregularity as this that the alphabetic arrangement 
of the poem could have been preserved throughout. Hydrus = 
vSpos, properly a sea-serpent ', but here the ocpis apxcuos of Gen. iii. ; 
Rev. xii. 9. 



THOMAS, named of Celano, from a small town near 
the lake Fucino in the further Abruzzo, and so 
called to distinguish him from another of the same name 
and Order, was a friend and scholar of St. Francis of 
Assisi — one indeed of the earliest members of the new 
Order of Minorites, which in 1208 was founded by him. 
He appears to have lived in near familiarity with his 
master, and, from the great matters in which he was 
trusted by him, to have enjoyed his highest confidence. 
After the death of St. Francis, which took place in 1226, 
he was the first who composed a brief account of his life, 
which he afterwards greatly enlarged, and which even 
now is the most authentic record of the life of the saint 
which we possess. The year of his own death is not 
known. His connexion with the founder of that influen- 
tial Order might have just preserved his name from utter 
forgetfulness ; but it is the Dies Ir<z which has given him 
a much wider fame. 

It is with no absolute certainty that the authorship of 
this grand hymn is ascribed to Thomas of Celano. Seem- 
ing to lie, as it has done, like a waif and stray, and yet at 
the same time so precious a one, that who would might 
make it his own, it is not very wonderful that claims of 
ownership have been put in on behalf of many. Several 
of these, however, may be set aside at once. Thus we 
are quite sure that Gregory the Great could not have 


been the author; seeing that rhyme, although not un- 
known or unused in his day, was very far from having 
reached the perfection which in this poem it displays \ 
add to which, that the poem would then have remained 
unknown for the first six hundred years of its existence. 
Again, St. Bernard has been sometimes named as the 
author. But, not to say that its character is austerer and 
texture more masculine, than any of those, beautiful as 
in their kind they are, which rightly belong to him, he 
also lived at too early a day. The hymn was not known 
till the thirteenth century ; while he died in the middle of 
the twelfth, and enjoyed too high a reputation in life and 
after death to have rendered it possible that such a com- 
position of his could have remained unnoticed for a hun- 
dred years. It would be long, and alien to the purposes 
of this volume, to consider all the names which have 
been suggested, or to give more than the results of the 
enquiry. The question has been thoroughly discussed 
by Mohnike, Hymnologische Forschungen, vol. i. pp. 
i — 24. He and others who have gone the fullest into 
the matter, are agreed that the preponderance of evi- 
dence is very much in favour of the friend and follower of 
St. Francis, a notice of whose life I have in consequence 
given. The fact that two other hymns which are cer- 
tainly of his composition are of very inferior merit cannot 
be urged as seriously affecting his claims. How many a 
poet has risen for once very much beyond the level 
which at any other time he attained. Moreover, these 
two hymns, which are both in honour of St. Francis, are 
not at all so poor in poetical merits as some would imply. 
Indeed the first, Fregit victor virtualis, has to my mind 
great merit, and displays a true poetical handling of its 


theme \ though it does not come within the range of this 
volume. In my first edition, I too lightly took Wadding, 
the Irish Franciscan's word, and on the authority of this 
learned and laborious historiographer of his Order (b. 
1580, d. 1657), stated that one or both of these hymns 
had perished, and expressed my regret at their loss. 
This is not, however, the case; the first is printed in 
some of the earlier Paris Missals, and the second, 
which ought not to have escaped me, in the Acta Sanc- 
torum, Oct. 2, p. 801. They also may be now found in 
DanieFs Thesaurus Hymnologicus \ vol. v. pp. 314, 317. 
Knowing as we do the bitter rivalry which reigned be- 
tween the two mendicant Orders, it somewhat confirms 
the view that the hymn is the work of a Franciscan, that 
the Dominican, Sixtus Senensis, should speak slightingly 
of it, terming it, as he does, an uncouth poem (rhythmus 
inconditus) ; this he would scarcely have done, had there 
not been that in the authorship of the poem which 
caused him to look at it with a jaundiced eye. 




IES irae, dies illa 
Solvet sceclum in favilla, 

LXXII. Mohnike, Hymnol. Forschungen, pp. 33, 39, 45 ; 
Lisco, Dies Inc, Hymnus auf das Wellgericht, Berlin, 1840 ; 
Daniel, Thes. Hymnol. vol. ii. p. 103. — Of all the Latin hymns of 
the Church this has the widest fame ; for as Daniel has truly re- 
marked : Etiam illi quibus Latini Ecclesiae hymni prorsus ignoti 
sunt, hunc certe norunt, et si qui inveniuntur ab humanitate tam 
alieni ut carminum sacrorum suavitatem nihil omnino sentiant, ad 
hunc certe hymnum, cujus quot sunt verba tot tonitrua, animum 
advertunt. The grand use which Goethe has made of it in his 
Faust may have helped to bring it to the knowledge of some who 
would not otherwise have known it ; or, if they had, would not 
have believed its worth, if ' a prophet of their own ' had not thus 
set his seal of recognition upon it. To another illustrious man 
this hymn was eminently dear. How affecting is that incident 
recorded of Sir Walter Scott by his biographer — how in those last 
days of his life when all of his great mind had failed or was failing, 
he was yet heard to murmur to himself some lines of this hymn, an 
especial favourite with him in other days. It is related in like 
manner of the Earl of Roscommon, that some lines from his own 
translation of this poem were the last words which he uttered 
before he expired ; see Johnson's Livcs. Nor is it hard to account 
for its popularity. The metre so grandly devised, of which I re- 
member no other example, fitted though it has here shewn itself 
for bringing out some of the noblest powers of the Latin language 
— the solemn effect of the triple rhyme, which has been likened to 
blow following blow of the hammer on the anvil — the confidence 
of the poet in the universal interest of his theme, a confidence which 
has made him set out his matter with so majestic and unadorned a 
plainness as at once to be intelligible to all, — these merits, with 
many more, have given the Dies Irce a foremost place among the 
masterpieces of sacred song. 

I. Dies ircBj dies illd] This line, striking the key-note to the 


Teste David cum Sibylla. 

whole poem, is drawn, exactly as it stands, from Zeph. i. 15 
(Vulg.). The day of judgment continually appears as the dies irce 
in Latin medieval verse : thus in a poem of considerable merit 
by Peter of Blois : 

Cessa, caro, lascivire, Fraus Spiritus immundi. 

Quia dies instat irae : Nos hoec vita deserit, 

Non te mundus rapiat, Et ut umbra praeterit 

Non te circumveniat Hujus figura mundi. 

3. An unwillingness to allow a Sibyl to appear as bearing wit- 
ness to Christian truth, has caused that we sometimes find this 
third line omitted, and in its stead Crucis expandens vexilla, as the 
second of this triplet. It rests on Matt. xxiv. 30, and on the 
expectation that the apparition of a cross in the sky would be this 
'sign of the Son of man in heaven.' It is, however, a late altera- 
tion of the text ; and the line as above is quite in the spirit of the 
early and medieval theology. In those uncritical ages the Sibylline 
verses were not seen to be that transparent forgery which indeed 
they are ; but were continually appealed to as only second to the 
sacred Scriptures in prophetic authority ; thus on this very matter 
of the destruction of the world, by Lactantius, Inst. Diz>. vii. 
16 — 24; cf. Piper, Mythol. d. Christl. Kunst, p. 472 — 507 ; these, 
with other heathen testimonies of the same kind, being not so much 
subordinated to more legitimate prophecy, as co-ordinated with it, 
and the two regarded as parallel lines of prophecy, the Church's 
and the world's, and consenting witnesses to the same truths. Thus 
is it in a curious medieval mystery on the Nativity, published in 
the Joumal des Savans, 1846, p. 88. It is of simplest construc- 
tion. One after another patriarchs and prophets and kings of the 
Old Covenant advance and repeat their most remarkable word 
about Him that should come : but side by side with them a series 
of heathen witnesses, Virgil, on the ground of his fourth Eclogue, 
Nebuchadnezzar (Dan. iii. 25), and the Sibyl : and that it was the 
writer's intention to parallelize the two series, and to shew that 
Christ had the testimony of both, is plain from some opening lines 
of the prologue : 


Quantus tremor est futurus, 

Quando Judex est venturus, 5 

Cuncta stricte discussurus. 

Tuba, mirum spargens sonum 
Per sepulchra regionum, 
Coget omnes ante thronum. 

Mors stupebit et natura, 10 

Quum resurget creatura, 
Judicanti responsura. 

Liber scriptus proferetur, 
In quo totum continetur, 
De quo mundus judicetur. 15 

Judex ergo quum sedebit, 
Quidquid latet, apparebit, 
Nil inultum remanebit. 

O Judaei, Verbum Dei Et vos, gentes, non credentes 

Qui negatis, hominem Peperisse virginem, 

Vestrse legis, testem Regis Vestrae gentis documentis 

Audite per ordinem. Pellite caliginem. 

And such is the meaning here — 'That such a day shall be has 
the witness of inspiration, of David, — and of mere natural religion, 
of the Sibyl — Jew and Gentile alike bearing testimony to the truths 
which we Christians believe.' All this makes it certain that we 
ought to read Teste David, and not Teste Petro. It is true that 
2 Pet. iii. 7 — II is a more obvious prophecy of the destruction of 
the world by flre than any in the Psalms ; but there are passages 
enough in these (as Ps. xcvi. 13; xcvii. 3; xi. 6), to which the 
poet may allude ; and the very obviousness of that in St. Peter, 
makes the reading, which introduces his name, suspicious. 


Quid sum miser turn dicturus, 
Quem patronum rogaturus, 
Quum vix justus sit securus ? 

Rex tremendse majestatis, 
Qui salvandos salvas gratis, 
Salva me, fons pietatis. 

Recordare, Jesu pie, 
Quod sum causa tuae viae \ 
Ne me perdas illa die ! 

Quaerens me sedisti lassus, 
Redemisti crucem passus : 
Tantus labor non sit cassus. 

Juste Judex ultionis, 
Donum fac remissionis 
Ante diem rationis. 

Ingemisco tanquam reus, 
Culpa rubet vultus meus : 
Supplicanti parce, Deus ! 

Qui Mariam absolvisti, 
Et latronem exaudisti, 
Mihi quoque spem dedisti. 

Preces meae non sunt dignae, 
Sed tu bonus fac benigne 
Ne perenni cremer igne ! 






28. scdisti lassus] Cf. John iv. 6 ; on which words Augustine, 

addressing each one of his hearers : Tibi fatigatus est ab itinere 



Inter oves locum praesta, 

Et ab haedis me sequestra, 

Statuens in parte dextra. 45 

Confutatis maledictis, 
Flammis acribus addictis, 
Voca me cum benedictis, 

Oro supplex et acclinis, 

Cor contritum quasi cinis : 50 

Gere curam mei finis. 

46. Cf. Matt. xxv. 40, 41. 

51. It is not wonderful that a poem such as this should have 
continually allured, and continually dened, translators. Jeremy 
Taylor in a letter to John Evelyn (p. liv. of Life ofj. Taylor, 
Eden's ed.), suggests to him that he should make a version of it : 
' I was thinking to have begged of you a translation of that well- 
known hymn, Dies ira, dies illa, which, if it were a little changed, 
would make an excellent divine song.' Evelyn did not comply, 
but we have several versions in English, of which the earliest that 
I know is one by Sylvester, Works, 1621, p. 12 14; also a very 
noble one by Crashaw (Steps to the Temple, London, 1648, p. 105) : 
it is in quatrains, and rather a reproduction than a translation. 
These are the first and last stanzas : 

' Hearst thou, my soul, what serious things 

Both the Psalm and Sibyl sings, 

Of a sure Judge, from whose sharp ray 

The world in flames shall fly away, 

Oh hear a suppliant heart all crusht, 
And crumbled into contrite dust ; 
My Hope, my Fear, my Judge, my Friend, 
Take charge of me, and of my end.' 

The list of English translators will include Drummond, Ros- 
common, Sir Walter Scott, and in more recent times Dean Alford, 


Worsley, Dr. Irons, and myself. Among more recent translations 
are two in the Irisk Ecclesiastical Journal, May and June, 1 849 ; 
while a little volume has been published in America, containing 
thirteen versions, and all by the same hand (Dies Irce in Thirteen 
Original Versions, by Abraham Coles, M.D., New York, 1860). 
In German they are yet more numerous, including highest names, 
such as Herder, Fichte, and Augustus Schlegel ; versions by the 
two last may befound in ~R.3.mha.oh!s Anthologie Christlicher Gesange, 
vol. i. p. 326, 327. A volume before me by Lisco, is exclusively 
dedicated to these. It was published in 1840, and contains forty- 
three versions ; while in an Appendix, which followed three years 
after, seventeen more are given, which either had before escaped 
the editor's notice, or had been published since the publication of 
his book. Among these, it is true, there is one French and one 
Romaic ; but all the rest are German. 

x 2 

3 o8 


CRUX ave benedicta ! 
Per te mors est devicta, 
In te pependit Deus, 
Rex et Salvator meus. 

LXXIII. [Walraff,] Corolla Hymnorum p. 23 ; Daniel, Thes. 
Hymnol. vol. ii. p. 349. — This little poem, so perfect in its kind, 
might fitly have had its place among the earlier hymns upon the 
Passion, pp. 132 — 153, and may seem as out of due order here. 
But the sublime and awful judgement-hymns which have just gone 
before, seem to want one of this nature — one which should set 
forth Him in whom and through whose cross alone there shall be 
no condemnation there — as a transitional hymn to those which 
presently follow, and of which the theme is everlasting life. I 
cannot refuse to set beside these lines, some of Calderon's, of no 
inferior grace, and on the same theme : 

Arbol, donde el cielo quiso 
Dar el fruto verdadero 
Contra el bocado primero, 
Flor del nuevo paraiso, 
Arco de luz, cuyo aviso 
En pielago mas profundo 
La paz publico del mundo, 
Planta hermosa, fertil vid, 
Harpa del neuvo David, 
Tabla del Moises segundo ; 
Pecador soy, tus favores 
Pido por justicia yo ; 
Pues Dios en ti padecio, 
Solo por los pecadores. 

Which lines may thus be translated : 


Tu arborum regina, 5 

Salutis medicina, 
Pressorum es levamen, 
Et tristium solamen. 

O sacrosanctum lignum, 

Tu vitae nostrae signum, 10 

Tulisti fructum Jesum, 

Humani cordis esum. 

Dum crucis inimicos, 

Vocabis, et amicos, 

O Jesu, Fili Dei, 15 

Sis, oro, memor mei. 

' Tree, which heaven has willed to dower 
With that true fruit whence we live, 
As that other, death did give ; 
Of new Eden loveliest flower ; 
Bow of light, that in worst hour 
Of the worst flood signal trae 
0'er the world, of mercy threw ; 
Fair plant, yielding sweetest wine ; 
Of our David harp divine ; 
Of our Moses tables new ; 
Sinner am I, therefore I 
Claim upon thy mercies make, 
Since alone for sinners' sake 
God on thee endured to*die.' 



BERNARD, a monk of Clugny, born at Morlaix, in 
Brittany, but of English parents, flourished in the 
twelfth century, the contemporary and fellow-countryman 
of his own more illustrious namesake of Clairvaux. 


HIC breve vivitur, hic breve plangitur, hic breve 
fletur : 
Non breve vivere, non breve plangere retribuetur ; 

LXXIV. Flacius Illyricus, Poemm. de Corrupto Ecclesice Statu, 
p. 247. — The author, in an interesting preface, dedicates the 
poem De Contemptu Mundi, of which these lines form a part, to 
Peter the Venerable, General of the Order to which he belonged. 
The poem, which contains neariy three thousand lines, was first 
published by Flacius Illyricus, in the curious, and now rather 
scarce, collection of poems, intended by him as a verse-pendant 
and complement to his Catalogus Testium Veritatis, or, Catalogue 
of Witnesses against the Papacy who were to be found in all ages 
of the Church. This poem has been several times reprinted ; 
Mohnike [Hymnol. Forschungen, vol. i. p. 458) knows of and 
indicates four editions, to which I could add a fifth. This is not 
wonderful ; for no one with a sense for the tme passion of poetry, 
even when it manifests itself in forms the least to his liking, will 
deny the breath of a real inspiration to the author of these dactylic 
hexameters. It must be confessed that uniting, as they do, the 
leonine and tailed rhyme, with every line broken up of necessity 


O retributio ! stat brevis actio, vita perennis ; 
O retributio ! cselica mansio stat lue plenis ; 
Quid datur et quibus ? aether egentibus et cruce 

dignis, 5 

Sidera vermibus optima sontibus, astra malignis. 

into exactly three equal parts, they present as unattractive a garb 
for poetry to wear as can well be imagined — to say nothing of the 
extravagantly dimcult laws which the poet has imposed upon him- 
self. He, it is true, in that dedicatory epistle, glories in the 
difnculties of the metre he has chosen, which he is convinced 
nothing but an especial grace and inspiration could have enabled 
him to overcome. Besides the awkwardness and repulsiveness of 
the metre, which indeed is fek much more strongly at first than 
after a little familiarity with it, a chief defect in the poem, one 
which in my quotation from it has been mitigated by some pmdent 
omissions, is its want of progress. The poet, instead of advancing, 
eddies round and round his subject, recurring again and again to 
that which he seemed to have thoroughly treated and dismissed. 
But even with these serious drawbacks, high merits remain to it 
still. I may mention that the often quoted lines, beginning, 

Hora novissima, tempora pessima, 

are the opening lines of this poem. 

Let me add, before bringing these general remarks on the poem 
to a close, that it would be a mistake to regard this singular metre 
as the exclusive property of Bernard of Morlaix. We have, in 
Edelestand du MeriPs Poesies Popidaires Latiues, p. 127, another 
thirteenth-century poem in the same metre and on the same subject. 
I quote four lines : 

O caro debilis, o cito labilis, o male mollis, 

Quid petis ardua ? quid tibi cornua ferrea tollis ? 

Quse modo florida, cras erit horrida, plus loquor, horror ; 

Horror amantibus, horror et hostibus, omnibus horror. 

So, too, there is more than one poem by Hildebert in the same ; 
thus see pp. 1327, 1353. 


Sunt modo praelia, postmodo pnemia ; qualia? plena; 

Plena refectio, nullaque passio, nullaque pcena. 

Spe modo vivitur, et Syon angitur a Babylone; 

Xunc tribulatio; tunc recreatio, sceptra, coronse; 10 

Tunc nova gloria pectora sobria clarificabit, 

Solvet enigmata, veraque sabbata continuabit. 

Liber et hostibus, et dominantibus ibit Hebraeus ; 

Liber habebitur et celebrabitur hinc jubilseus. 

Patria luminis, inscia turbinis, inscia litis, 15 

Cive replebitur, amplificabitur Israelitis : 
Patria splendida, terraque florida, libera spinis, 
Danda fidelibus est ibi civibus, hic peregrinis. 
Tunc erit omnibus inspicientibus ora Tonantis 
Summa potentia, plena scientia, pax pia sanctis ; 20 
Pax sine crimine, pax sine turbine, pax sine rixa, 
Meta laboribus, atque tumultibus anchora fixa. 
Pars mea Rex meus, in proprio Deus ipse decore 
Visus amabitur, atque videbitur Auctor in ore. 
Tunc Jacob Israel, et Lia tunc Rachel efficietur, 25 
Tunc Syon atria pulcraque patria perficietur. 

25. Tunc Jacob Israet\ The earthly shall be transformed into 
the heavenly, as Jacob became Israel, and in sign of the new nature 
received the new name (Gen. xxxii. 28). According to Augustine 
(Serm. 122), Israel = Videns Deum, which gives an additional 
fitness to these words. — ct Lia tunc RacheT\ Leah and Rachel 
represent, respectively, the active and the contemplative Christian 
life, see p. 234. Leah becoming Rachel is the swallowing up of 
the laborious active in the more delightful contemplative, in that 
vision of God wherein all blessedness is mcluded. Cf. Augustine, 
Con. Faust. xxii. 52 — 54 ; and Hugh of St. Victor [MiscelL i. 79) : 
Duse sorores duas vitas significant. Lia, quae interpretatur laboriosa, 
significat vitam activam, quae est fcecunda in fructu boni operis, 
sed parum videt in luce contemplationis. Rachel, quae interpreta- 


O bona patria, lumina sobria te speculantur, 
Ad tua nomina sobria lumina collacrimantur : 
Est tua mentio pectoris unctio, cura doloris, 
Concipientibus aethera mentibus ignis amoris. 30 

Tu locus unicus, illeque cselicus es paradisus, 
Non ibi lacrima, sed placidissima gaudia, risus. 
*Est ibi consita laurus, et insita cedms hysopo ; 
Sunt radiantia jaspide mcenia, clara pyropo \ 
Hinc tibi sardius, inde topazius, hinc amethystus; 35 
Est tua fabrica concio caelica, gemmaque Christus, 
Tu sine littore, tu sine tempore, fons, modo rivus, 
Dulce bonis sapis, estque tibi lapis undique vivus. 
Est tibi laurea, dos datur aurea, Sponsa decora, 
Primaque Principis oscula suscipis, inspicis ora : 40 
Candida lilia, viva monilia sunt tibi, Sponsa, 
Agnus adest tibi, Sponsus adest tibi, lux speciosa : 
Tota negotia, cantica dulcia dulce tonare, 
Tam mala debita, quam bona praebita conjubilare. 

tur visum principium^ designat vitam contemplativam, quae est 
sterilis foris in opere, sed perspicax in contemplatione. In his 
duabus vitis quasi quaedam contentio est animae sanctae alternatim 
nitentis ad amplexum Sponsi sui, id est, Christi, sapientiae videiicet 
Dei. Contendunt ergo contemplatio et actio pro amplexu sapientiae 
(cf. Gen. xxx. 14 — 16). Qui in contemplatione est, suspirat pro 
sterilitate operis ; qui in opere est, suspirat pro jubilo contempla- 
tionis. In a sublime passage with which Augustine concludes his 
Commentary upon St. John, he makes the two Apostles, Peter and 
John, to represent these two lives. It begins thus : Duas itaque 
vitas sibi divinitus praedicatas et commendatas novit Ecclesia, qua- 
rum est una in fide, una in specie ; una in tempore peregrinationis, 
altera in aeternitate mansionis ; una in labore, altera in requie ; 
una in via, altera in patria ; una in opere actionis, altera in mercede 


Urbs Syon aurea, patria lactea, cive decora, 45 
Omne cor obruis, omnibus obstruis et cor et ora. 
Nescio, nescio, quse jubilatio, lux tibi qualis, 
Quam socialia gaudia, gloria quam specialis : 
Laude studens ea tollere, mens mea victa fatiscit : 
O bona gloria, vincor; in omnia laus tua vicit. 50 
Sunt Syon atria conjubilantia, martyre plena, 
Cive micantia, Principe stantia, luce serena : 
Est ibi pascua, mitibus arrlua, praestita sanctis, 
Regis ibi thronus, agminis et sonus est epulantis. 
Gens duce splendida, concio candida vestibus albis 55 
Sunt sine fletibus in Syon aedibus, sedibus almis ; 
Sunt sine crimine, sunt sine turbine, sunt sine lite 
In Syon aedibus editioribus Israelitae. 

45 — 58. In these lines the reader will recognize the original 
of that lovely hymn, which within the last few years has been 
added to those already possessed by the Church. A new hymn 
which has won such a place in the affections of Christian people 
as has Jerusalem the Golden is so priceless an acquisition that I 
must needs rejoice to have been the first to recall from oblivion 
the poem which yielded it. Dr. Neale in his Rhythm of Bemard 
de Morlaix on the Heavenly Country, London, 1859, has translated 
a large portion of the poem. There has since appeared another 
translation by G. Moultrie (see the Lyra Mystica, p. 113) which 
very nearly reproduces, and with a success which no one could 
have ventured to anticipate, the metre of the original. Take for 
instance these four lines : 

1 Here we have many fears ; this is the vale of tears, the land 

of sorrow. 
Tears are there none at all, in that ceiestial hall, on life's 

bright morrow 3 
There is eternal rest, there after toil the blest cease from life's 

fever ; 
There in heaven's banquet-hall sounds the high festival of the 

Receiver. ' 


Urbs Syon inclyta, gloria debita glorincandis, 
Tu bona visibus interioribus intima pandis : 60 

Intima lumina, mentis acumina te speculantur, 
Pectora flammea spe modo, postea sorte lucrantur. 
Urbs Syon unica, mansio mystica, condita caelo, 
Nunc tibi gaudeo, nunc mihi lugeo, tristor, anhelo : 
Te qui corpore non queo, pectore saepe penetro, 65 
Sed caro terrea, terraque carnea, mox cado retro. 
Nemo retexere nemoque promere sustinet ore, 
Quo tua moenia, quo capitalia plena decore ; 
Opprimit omne cor ille tuus decor, o Syon, o pax, 
Urbs sine tempore, nulla potest fore laus tibi men- 
dax ; 70 

59 — 72. I quote, for comparison and contrast, a few lines from 
Casimir, the great Latin poet of Poland. They turn upon the 
same theme, the heavenly home-sickness ; but with all their classi- 
cal beauty, and it is great, who does not feel that the poor Clugnian 
monk's is the more real and deeper utterance, — that, despite the 
strange form which he has chosen, he is the greater poet ? 

Urit me patriae decor, 

Urit conspicuis pervigil ignibus 

Stellati tholus setheris, 

Et lunae tenerum lumen, et aureis 

Fixae lampades atriis. 

O noctis ehoreas, et teretem sequi 

Juratoe thiasum faces ! 

O pulcher patriae vultus, et ignei 

Dulces excubiae poli ! 

Cur me stelliferi luminis hospitem, 

Cur heu ! cur nimium diu 

Cselo sepositum cernitis exulem ? 

The Spanish scholar will remember and compare the magnificent 
ode of Luis de Leon, entitled Noche Serena. It is translated by 
Archdeacon Churton in the Lyr.i Mystica, p. 430, and again in 
the Edinburgh Review, vol. xl. p. 472. 


O sine luxibus, o sine luctibus, o sine lite 
Splendida curia, florida patria, patria vitae ! 

Urbs Syon inclyta, turris et edita littore tuto, 
Te peto, te colo, te flagro, te volo, canto, saluto ; 
Nec meritis peto, nam meritis meto morte perire, 75 
Nec reticens tego, quod meritis ego filius irae : 
Vita quidem mea, vita nimis rea, mortua vita, 
Quippe reatibus exitialibus obruta, trita. 
Spe tamen ambulo, praemia postulo speque fideque, 
Illa perennia postulo praemia nocte dieque. 80 

Me Pater optimus atque piissimus ille creavit ; 
In lue pertulit, ex lue sustulit, a lue lavit. 
Gratia caelica sustinet unica totius orbis 
Parcere sordibus, interioribus unctio morbis; 
Diluit omnia caelica gratia, fons David undans 85 

Omnia diluit, omnibus affluit, omnia mundans: 
O pia gratia, celsa palatia cemere praesta, 
Ut videam bona, festaque consona, caelica festa. 
O mea, spes mea, tu Syon aurea, clarior auro, 
Agmine splendida, stans duce, florida perpete lauro, 90 
O bona patria, num tua gaudia teque videbo? 
O bona patria, num tua praemia plena tenebo ? 
Dic mihi, fiagito, verbaque reddito, dicque, Videbis : 
Spem solidam gero; remne tenens ero? dic, Retinebis. 
O sacer, o pius, o ter et amplius ille beatus, 95 

Cui sua pars Deus : o miser, o reus, hac viduatus. 



URBS beata Hirusalem, dicta pacis visio, 
Quae construitur in caelis vivis ex lapidibus, 
Et ab angelis ornata, velut sponsa nobilis : 

Nova veniens e caelo, nuptiali thalamo 
Praeparata, ut sponsata copuletur Domino; 
Plateae et muri ejus ex auro purissimo. 

LXXV. Clichtoveus, Elucidat. Eccles. p. 46 ; Thomasius, 
Hymnarium, Opp. vol. ii. p. 378 ; Rambach, Anthol. Christl. 
Gesdnge, p. 179 ; Mohnike, Hymnol. Forsckungen^ voi. ii. p. 187. 
Of this rugged but fine old hymn the author is not known, but it 
probably dates from the eighth or ninth century. I have observed 
already upon the malmer in which these grand old compositions 
were recast in the Romish Church, at the revival of leaming, 
which was, in Italy at least, to so large an extent a revival of 
heathenism. This is one of the few which have not utterly perished 
in the process ; while yet if we compare the first two rugged and 
somewhat uncouth stanzas, but withal so sweet, with the smooth 
iambics which in the Roman Breviary have taken their place, we 
shall feel how much of their beauty has disappeared. They are 
read there in the following form : 

Caelestis urbs Jerusalem, O sorte nupta prospera, 

Beata pacis visio, Dotata Patris gloria, 

Quae celsa de viventibus Respersa Sponsi gratia, 

Saxis ad astra tolleris, Regina formosissima, 

Sponsseque ritu cingeris Christo jugata Principi, 

Mille angelorum millibus : Cselo coruscas civitas. 


Portae nitent margaritis adytis patentibus; 

Et virtute meritorum illuc introducitur 

Omnis qui ob Christi nomen hoc in mundo premitur. 

Tunsionibus, pressuris expoliti lapides 10 

Suis coaptantur locis ; per manus artihcis. 
Disponuntur permansuri sacris aedihciis. 

Angulare fundamentum lapis Christus missus est, 
Qui compage parietum in utroque nectitur, 
Quem Syon sancta suscipit, in quo credens per- 
manet. 15 

Omnis illa Deo sacra et dilecta civitas, 
Plena modulis et laude et canoro jubilo, 
Trinum Deum unicumque cum favore praedicat. 

Hoc in templum, summe Deus, exoratus adveni, 

Et clementi bonitate precum vota suscipe, 20 

Largam benedictionem hic infunde jugiter. 

7. margaritis] Cf. Rev. xxi. 21. What were tears here shall 
reappear as pearls there. Der verklarte Schmerz bildet die Ein- 
gange zu der Residenz der ewigen Wonne (Lange). 

15. Syon\ It is not an accident that the poet uses Syon here 
speaking of the Church militant, and Himsalem, ver. 1, where 
addressing the Church triumphant. Durandus {Rational. i. 1), 
explains the distinction : Dicitur enim praesens Ecclesia Syon, eo 
quod ab hac peregrinatione longe posita promissionem rerum caeles- 
tium speculatur ; et ideo Syon, id est, speculatio, nomen accepit. 
Pro futura vero patria et pace, Hierusalem vocatur : nam Hieru- 
salem pacis visio interpretatur. The necessities of metre caused 
this distinction to be often neglected. 

19 — 24. These two concluding stanzas, Daniel (vol. i. p. 240) 
conceives not to have belonged to the hymn, as first composed, 


Hic promereantur omnes petita acquirere, 
Et adepta possidere cum sanctis perenniter, 
Paradisum introire, translati in requiem. 

but to have been added to it, to adapt it to a Feast of Dedication. 
Not so. The hymn coheres intimately in all its parts, and in 
ceasing to be a hymn In Dedicatione Ecclesice, it would lose its 
chiefest beauty. It is most truly a hymn 'of degrees,' ascending 
from things earthly to things heavenly, and making those inter- 
preters of these. The prevailing intention in the building and the 
dedication of the church, with the rites thereto appertaining, was to 
carry up men's thoughts from that temple built with hands, which 
they saw, to that other built of living stones in heaven, of which 
this was but a shadow (Durandus, Rational. i. 1) ; compare two 
beautiful sermons by Hildebert, Opp., pp. 641, 648. A sequence, 
De Dedicatione Ecclesice, which Daniel himself gives (vol. ii. p. 23), 
shouid have preserved him from this error. These are the first 
lines : 

Psallat Ecclesia, mater illibata et virgo 

Sine ruga, honorem hujus ecclesiae ; 

Hsec domus aulse caelestis probatur particeps, 

In laude Regis caelorum et ceremoniis, 

Et lumine continuo aemulans civitatem sine tenebris. 

24. This poem attests its own true inspiration, in the fact that it 
has proved the source of manifold inspiration in circles beyond its 
own. I speak not merely of the excellent translations of this poem 
which we possess, one by Mr. Wackerbarth (see Dr. Neale's 
Hy?7ins on the Glories and Joys of Taradise, p. 87) ; another in 
Hymns Ancient and Modei-n, No. 243, 244 ; and a still earlier by 
Drummond. But to it we owe our own 

* Jerusalem, my happy home ! ' 

and the same, in a rarer but yet more beautiful form (it is published 
with excellent notes under the title, The New Jerusalem, Edinburgh, 

c O mother dear, Jerusalem ! ' 


The rich hymnology of Protestant Germany possesses two noble 
hymns at the least, which had their first motive here, while the 
subject is handled with a freedom which leaves them original com- 
positions notwithstanding. The older of these is Meyfart's 
(1590 — 1642), Jerusalem, du hochgebaute Stadt (Xo. 495, in Bun- 
sen's Gesangbuch), translated in the Lyra Mystica, p. 365, a lovely 
hymn, yet perhaps inferior to Kosegarten's (1758 — 18 18) ; from 
this, which I do not find in Bunsen's collection, I quote three 
glorious stanzas : 

Stadt Gottes, deren diamantnen Ring 

Kein Feind zu stiirmen wagt : 

Drin kein Tyrann haust, drin kein Herrscherling 

Die freien Biirger plagt ; 

Recht nur und Licht und Wahrheit 

Stiitzt deines Konigs Thron, 

Und Klarheit iiber Klarheit 

Umglanzt den Konigssohn. 

Stadt, deren Gassen sind durchlauchtig Gold, 
Die Mauern Marmelstein ; 

Der Glanzstrom, der durch deine Strassen rollt, 
Walzt Wellen silberrein. 

Krystallne Fluthen baden 

Der Konigsgarten Saum, 

Und langs den Lustgestaden 

Schattet der Lebensbaum. 

Dir scheint, o Stadt, der Sonne Antlitz nicht, 
Und nicht ihr bleiches Bild ; 
Es leuchtet dir ein himmlisch Angesicht, 
Das wunderlich und mild. 

Gott Selbst ist deine Sonne, 

Dein leuchtend Licht das Lamm, 

Das— aller Heilkraft Bronne — 

Gebiisst am Marterstamm. 

There is a very beautiful hymn by Frederick Riickert, beginning : 
Das Paradies muss schoner sein 
Als jeder Ort auf Erden. 

A translation of it may be found in my Poems } J865, p. 231. 





AD perennis vitae fontem mens sitivit arida, 
Claustra carnis prsesto frangi clausa quserit animaj 
Gliscitj ambit, eluctatur exul frui patria. 

Dum pressuris ac aerumnis se gemit obnoxiam, 

Quam amisit, dum deliquit, contemplatur gloriam ; 5 

Praesens malum auget boni perditi memoriam. 

Nam quis promat summae pacis quanta sit laetitia, 
Ubi vivis margaritis surgunt aedificia, 
Auro celsa micant tecta, radiant triclinia ? 

LXXVI. Augustini Opp. Bened. ed. vol. vi. p. 117 {Appendix) ; 
Rambach, Anthol. Christl. Gesauge, p. 241 ; Daniel, Thes. 
Hymnol. vol. i. p. 116 ; Mone, Hymni Lat. Med. Alvi, vol. i. p. 
422. — This poem has been often attributed to Augustine, finding 
place as it does in the Meditationes •, long ascribed to him. These 
Meditationes, however, are plainly a cento from Anselm, Gregory 
the Great, and many others besides Augustine ; from whom they 
are rightly adjudged away in the Benedictine edition, as indeed in 
earlier as well. The hymn is Damiani's, and quite the noblest he 
has left us. There is a fine translation by Sylvester, Works, 1621, 


Solis gemmis pretiosis haec structura nectitur, 10 

Auro mundo tanquam vitro urbis via sternitur ; 
Abest limus, deest fimus, lues nulla cernitur. 

Hiems horrens, aestas torrens illic nunquam sseviunt ; 
Flos perpetuus rosarum ver agit perpetuum ; 
Candent lilia, rubescit crocus, sudat balsamum. 15 

p. 1 1 14 ; another by Wackerbarth in Neale's Medieval Hymns and 
Sequences, p. 59 ; and a third by Dayman in The Sarum Hytnnal. 

II. Auro mundd\ Cf. Rev. xxi. 21 ; and the commentary of 
Gregory the Great (Moral. xviii. ) : Appellatione auri in sacro elo- 
quio aliquando splendor supernse civitatis accipitur. Aurum nam- 
que, ex quo civitas illa constat, simile vitro dicitur, ut per aurum 
clara, et per vitrum perspicua, designetur. Auri quippe metallum 
novimus potiori metallis omnibus claritate fulgere, vitri vero natura 
est, ut extrinsecus visu pura, intrinsecus perspicuitate perluceat. 
In alio metallo quicquid intrinsecus continetur, absconditur : in 
vitro vero quilibet liquor qualis continetur interius, talis exterius 
demonstratur, et, ut ita dixerim, omnis liquor in vitreo vasculo 
clausus patet. Quid igitur aliud in auro vel vitro accipimus, nisi 
illam beatorum civium societatem, quorum corda sibi invicem et 
claritate fulgent, et puritate translucent ? Quia enim omnes sancti 
in seterna beatitudine summa claritate fulgebunt, instructa auro 
dicitur. Et quoniam ipsa eomm claritas sibi invicem in alternis 
cordibus patet, et cum uniuscujusque vultus ostenditur, simul et 
conscientia penetratur, hoc ipsum aurum simile vitro mundo esse 
memoratur. Cf. ver. 38, 39 of this hymn. 

12 lues\ This must have here that meaning which once it 
obtains in Petronius (Sat. 123), namely, of snow in act of melt- 
ing, and now fouled by contact with the impurities of earth. As 
nothing is purer than the new fallen snow, so nothing impurer 
than the snow in process of dissolution. Here is the band of 
connexion betvveen the several meanings of lues ; for, as Doder- 
lein says truly, tracing the modifications of its meaning (Lat. Syn. 
vol. ii. p. 58) : Die Begriffe von Unreinigkeit und Krankheit 
liegen ziemlich nahe neben einander. 


Virent prata, vernant sata, rivi mellis influunt ; 
Pigmentorum spirat odor, liquor et aromatum; 
Pendent poma floridorum non lapsura nemorum. 

Non alternat luna vices, sol, vel cursus siderum ; 
Agnus est felicis Urbis lumen inocciduum ; 20 

Nox et tempus desunt ei; diem fert continuum. 

Nam et sancti quique velut sol praeclarus rutilant; 
Post triumphum coronati mutue conjubilant; 
Et prostrati pugnas hostis jam securi numerant. 

Omni labe defaecati carnis bella nesciunt; 25 

Caro facta spiritalis et mens unum sentiunt; 
Pace multa perfruentes scandalum non perferunt. 

Mutabilibus exuti repetunt originem, 

Et praesentem veritatis contemplantur speciem, 

Hinc vitalem vivi fontis hauriunt dulcedinem. 30 

Inde statum semper iidem existendi capiunt, 
Clari, vividi, jucundi, nuliis patent casibus : 
Absunt morbi semper sanis, senectus juvenibus. 

Hinc perenne tenent esse, nam transire transiit; 
Inde virent, vigent, florent; corruptela corruit; 35 
Immortalis vigor aurae mortis jus absorbuit. 

19 — 21. Augusti (Beitr. zur Christl. Kunst-Gesch. vol. i. p. 
72, sq.) has an interesting essay on the artistic element in the 
Apocalypse, adducing this poem as an example of the ample use 
made of it by the chief Latin hymnologists. 

22. velut sol] Cf. Matt. xiii. 43. 
Y 2 


Qui scientem cuncta sciunt, quid nescire nequeunt: 
Nam et pectoris arcana penetrant alterutrum, 
Unum volunt, unum nolunt, unitas est mentium. 

Licet cuique sit diversum pro labore meritum, 40 
Caritas hoc facit suum quod amat in altero : 
Proprium sic singulorum fit commune omnium. 

Ubi corpus, illic jure congregantur aquilae, 
Quo cum angelis et sanctae recreantur animae; 
Uno pane vivunt cives utriusque patriae. 45 

Avidi et semper pleni, quod habent desiderant, 
Non satietas fastidit, neque fames cruciat : 
Inhiantes semper edunt, et edentes inhiant. 

43. Ubi corpus] From the connexion in which these words 
(drawn from Matt. xxiv. 28) appear, Damiani evidently under- 
stands them thus : ' Where Christ is, there his saints and servants 
will be gathered to Him, by the same unerring instinct which 
assembles the eagles to their prey ; ' and this was the accepted 
explanation in the early Church. Whether it be the right one is 
an interesting question, but not for discussion here. 

46 — 48. Avidi . . . pleni\ Prosper has two fine lines on the 
same theme : 

Semper erunt quod sunt, aeternae gaudia vitae, 
Gaudenti quoniam causa sit ipse Deus. 

Hildebert (Serm. 25) expresses himself nearly in the same way 
concerning the angels. Of Christ he says, Ipse est enim ih quem 
angeli desiderant prospicere [1 Pet. i. 12]. Prospiciunt quidem in 
eum, et cum desiderio, quia quae habent desiderant, et quae de- 
siderant habent. Si enim desiderarent, et illud non obtinerent, 
esset in desiderio anxietas, et ita pcena. Si autem haberent et non 
cuperent, videretur fastidium sequi satietatem. Ne autem sit in 
desiderio anxietas, vel in satietate fastidium, desiderantes satiantur, 
et satiati desiderant. 


Novas semper melodias vox meloda concrepat, 

Et in jubilum prolata mulcent aures organa, 50 

Digna per quem sunt victores, Regi dant praeconia. 

Felix caeli quae praesentem Regem cernit anima, 
Et sub sede spectat alta orbis volvi machinam, 
Solem, lunam, et globosa cum planetis sidera. 

Christe, palma bellatorum, hoc in municipium 55 

Introduc me post solutum militare cingulum, 
Fac consortem donativi beatorum civium : 

Praebe vires inexhausto laboranti praelio, 

Xec quietem post procinctum deneges emerito, 

Teque merear potiri sine fine praemio. 60 

60. Some lines of Adam of St. Victor have much sweetness in 
them, and may fitly be appended here : 

Confusa sunt hic omnia, Sed una vox laetantium, 

Spes, metus, mceror, gaudium ; Et unus ardor cordium. 
Vix hora vel dimidia 
Fit in ctelo silentium. Illic cives angelici, 

Sub hierarchia tripiici, 
Quam felix illa civitas, Trinae gaudent et simplici 

In qua. jugis solennitas, Se monarchise subjici. 

Et quam jucunda curia, 
Quae curae prorsus nescia ! Mirantur nec deficiunt 

In illum, quem prospiciunt ; 
Xec languor hic, nec senium, Fruuntur nec fastidiunt 

Xec fraus, nec terror hostium, Quo frui magis sitiunt. 

Having quoted these lines, I must quote from Hugh of St. 
Victor (De Claust. Animcz, c. 36) what alone will make intelligible 
the third and fourth lines : De hoc secreto cordis dictum est : 
Factum est silentium in caelo quasi media hora (Rev. viii. l). 
Caelum quippe est anima justi. Sed quia hoc silentium contem- 


plationis et haec quies mentis in hac vita. non potest esse perfecta, 
nequaquam hora integra factum in cselo dicitur silentium, sed 
quasi media ; ut nec media plene sentiatur, cum praemittitur quasi : 
quia mox ut se animus sublevare coeperit, et quietis intimae lumine 
perfundi, redeunte motu cogitationum confunditur et confusus cae- 

Nor are these lines of Alanus without merit : 

Hic risus sine tristitia, sine nube serenum, 
Deliciae sine defectu, sine fine voluptas, 
Pax expers odii, requies ignara laboris, 
Lux semper rutilans, sol veri luminis, ortus 
Nescius occasus, gratum sine vespere mane : 
Hic splendor noctem, saties fastidia nescit, 
Gaudia plena vigent, nullo respersa dolore. 
Non hic ambiguo graditur Fortuna meatu, 
Non risum lacrimis, adversis prospera, laeta 
Tristibus infirmat, non mel corrumpit aceto, 
Aspera commiscens blandis, tenebrosa serenis, 
Connectens luci tenebras, funesta jocosis : 
Sed requies tranquilla manet, quam fine carentem 
Fortunee casus in nubila vertere nescit. 



THOMAS HAMERKEN, of Kempen or Kampen 
in Over-Yssel, to whom generally, and, I believe, 
with justice, the Imitation of Christ is attributed, was 
born in 1380, and died in 147 1. His works, apart from 
that disputed one, are numerous. Among them are 
various ascetic and devotional treatises, possessing the 
same kind of merit, though in an inferior degree, which 
has caused the Imitation of Christ to be, next to the 
Bible, the most widely diffused and oftenest reprinted 
book in the world. They include also a not unimportant 
life of Gerhard, the founder of the Fratres Comrnunis 
Vitse, to which Order — Guild, perhaps, we should rather 
call it — Thornas himself belonged. His poems are not 
many, nor would they yield a second extract at all to be 
compared in beauty with the very beautiful fragment 
which follows. 


ASTANT angelorum chori, 
Laudes cantant Creatori; 
Regem cernunt in decore, 
Amant corde, laudant ore, 

LXXVII. Thoma a Campis Opp. Antverpise. 1634, p. 364 ; 
Corner, Prompt. Devot. p. 760. 


Tympanizant, citharizant, 5 

Volant alis, stant in scalis, 

Sonant nolis, fulgent stolis 

Coram summa Trinitate. 

Clamant : Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus \ 

Fugit dolor, cessat planctus 10 

In superna civitate. 

Concors vox est omnium, 

Deum collaudantium ; 

Fervet amor mentium, 

Clare contuentium 15 

Beatam Trinitatem in una Deitate : 

Quam adorant Seraphim 

Ferventi in amore, 

Venerantur Cherubim 

Ingenti sub honore; 20 

Mirantur nimis Throni de tanta majestate. 

O quam praeclara regio, 
Et quam decora legio 
Ex angelis et hominibus ! 
O gloriosa civitas, 25 

In qua summa tranquillitas, 
Lux et pax in cunctis nnibus ! 
Cives hujus civitatis 
Veste nitent castitatis, 

Legem tenent caritatis, 30 

Firmum pactum unitatis. 
Non laborant, nil ignorant; 
Non tentantur, nec vexantur ; 
Semper sani, semper laeti, 
Cunctis bonis sunt repleti. 35 





ALPHA et O, magne Deus, 
Heli, Heli, Deus meus, 
Cujus virtus totum posse, 
Cujus sensus totum nosse, 

LX XVIII. Hildeberti et Marbodi Opp. Paris, 1708, p. 1337 ; 
Hommey, Supplemejitum Patrum, p. 446 ; Mone, Hymni Lat. Med. 
JEvi, vol. i. p. 14. — In Dr. Neale's Hytuns, chiefly Medieval, on the 
Joys and Glories of Paradise, p. 24, there is a fine translation with 
double rhyme of the latter portion of this poem, beginning at ver. 
105. There is an earlier, and probably theearliest in the language, 
of the whole poem, by Thomas Crashaw, the father of Richard, 
and himself a poet and divine. The natural arrangement of this 
volume has enabled me to reserve to the last a poem which will 
supply to it so grand a close — a poem which, so soon as it has 
escaped the straits and embarrassments of doctrinal definition, — 
although even there it has a most real value, from the writer's 
theological accuracy and distinctness, and his complete possession 
of his theme, — gradually rises in poetical animation, until towards 
the end it equals the very best productions which Latin Christian 
poetry anywhere can boast. And this, its excellence, makes not a 
little strange that almost entire oblivion, even among lovers of the 
Latin hymnology, into which it has fallen. Hugh of St. Victor 
indeed, a contemporary of Hildebert's, quotes six of its concluding 


Cujus esse suramum bonum, 
Cujus opus quicquid bonum; 

lines with a well-deserved admiration, but as one unacquainted 
with the name of its author (Serm, 83) : Qnalis autem sit exsultatio 
sanctorum in caelesti gloria, et laetitia in cubilibus istis, exsultationes 
quoque in gutture eorum, illorum solummodo est cognoscere quibus 
datum est et habere. Unde qnidcwi rhythmico carmine supernam 
aflfatus Hierusalem, pulchre dixit : 

Quantum tui gratulentur, 
Quam festive conviventur, 
Quis affectus eos stringat, 
Aut qu?e gemma muros pingat, 
Chalcedon an hyacinthus, 
Norunt illi qui sunt intus. 

It is true that there was no complete edition of the works of 
Hildebert until the Benedictine, Paris, 1708. But Ussher, in an 
appendix to his work De Symbolis, first published 1660 (Worhs, 
vol. vii. p. 335, Elrington's ed.), had already printed these lines, 
not knowing however the name of their author (ex veteribus mem- 
branis rhythmos istos elegantes descripsimus). They were subse- 
quently printed by Hommey, as he supposed for the first time, in 
his Supplementum Patruvi, but with a text far inferior to Ussher's ; 
indeed so inaccurate as to be often well-nigh unintelligible. 
Guericke (Ckristl. Archceologie, Leipsic, 1847, p. 258) quotes a 
considerable part of this ' magnificent ' hymn with a just recog- 
nition ; while Rambach, in his Christl. Anthologie, vol. i. p. 260, 
finds room for a fragment of it, but only ' that he may give some- 
thing of this author's. ' 

1. fi\ This is sometimes printed Omega, but the metre plainly 
requires that it should appear as above : unless indeed we should 
resolve the H into the Oo, of which it was originaliy composed, 
and as which it might be here pronounced, and then print the line 
thus : A et Oo, magne Deus. It needs not to say what a favourite 
symbol of Him who is the first and the last (Alpha et D. cognomina- 
tus, ipse fons et clausula omnium quae sunt, fuerunt, quaeque post 
futura sunt : Prudentius) the monogram A — ti or a/« supplied to 


Super cuncta, subter cuncta; 

Extra cuncta, intra cuncta; 

Intra cuncta, nec inclusus ; 

Extra cuncta, nec exclusus; ln 

Super cuncta, nec elatus ; 

Subter cuncta, nec substratus ; 

Super totus, praesidendo ; 

Subter totus, sustinendo ; 

Extra totus, complectendo ; 15 

Intra totus es, implendo; 

Intra, nunquam coarctaris, 

Extra, nunquam dilataris; 

Super, nullo sustentaris ; 

Subter, nullo fatigaris. 20 

Mundum movens, non moveris, 

Locum tenens, non teneris, 

Tempus mutans, non mutaris, 

Vaga firmans, non vagaris. 

Vis externa, vel necesse 25 

Non alternat tuum esse : 

Heri nostrum, cras, et pridem 

Semper tibi nunc et idem : 

Tuum, Deus, hodiernum 

Indivisum, sempiternum : 30 

In hoc totum praevidisti, 

Totum simul perfecisti, 

Ad exemplar summae mentis 

Formam praestans elementis. 

the early Christians, or how often it is found on lamps, gravestones, 
gems, and other relics which they have bequeathed to us (see 
Muratori, Anecdota, i. 45). 



Nate, Patri coaequalis, .35 

Patri consubstantialis, 
Patris splendor et figura, 
Factor factus creatura, 
Carnem nostram induisti, 
Causam nostram suscepisti : 40 

Sempiternus, temporalis ; 
Moriturus, immortalis ; 
Verus homo, verus Deus ; 
Impermixtus Homo-Deus. 
Non conversus hic in carnem ; 45 

Nec minutus propter carnem : 
Hic assumptus est in Deum. 
Xon consumptus propter Deum: 
Patri compar Deitate, 

Minor carnis veritate : 50 

Deus pater tantum Dei, 
Virgo mater, sed est Dei : 

57. spkndor et figiini\ These are the Latin equivalents for 
airavyafjfxa and x a P aKrl iP^ Heb. i. 3 (Vulg.) ; making plain that 
to that setting forth of the dignity of the Son Hildebert refers. 
'ATravyaa/j.a might either mean ^yTulgence or ;vfulgence ; and 
splendor does not necessarily determine for either meaning. The 
Church, however, has ever made aTraxryacrua = <pws e/c <parrbs = 
^/Yulgence. Thus we have in another hymn : Splendor paternse 
gloriae (a fuller translation of the cbrairyao-ua tt)s 8o|7?s), Qui lumen 
es e lumine. 

48. Nbn consumpius] Augustine {Ep. 170, 9) : Homo assum- 
tus est a Deo ; non in homine consumptus est Deus. 


In tam nova ligatura 

Sic utraque stat natura, 

Ut conservet quicquid erat, 55 

Facta quiddam quod non erat. 

Noster iste Mediator, 

Iste noster legislator, 

Circumcisus, baptizatus, 

Crucifixus, tumulatus, 60 

Obdormivit et descendit, 

Resurrexit et ascendit : 

Sic ad cselos elevatus . 

Judicabit judicatus. 


Paraclitus increatus, 65 

Neque factus, neque natus, 
Patri consors, Genitoque, 
Sic procedit ab utroque 
Ne sit minor potestate, 
Vel discretus qualitate. 70 

Quanti illi, tantus iste, 
Quales illi, talis iste. 
Ex quo illi, ex tunc iste ; 
Quantum illi, tantum iste. 
Pater alter, sed gignendo; 75 

Natus alter, sed nascendo; 
Flamen ab his procedendo; 
Tres sunt unum subsistendo. 
Quisque trium plenus Deus, 
Non tres tamen Di, sed Deus. 80 


In hoc Deo, Deo vero, 

Tres et unum assevero, 

Dans Usiae unitatem, 

Et personis Trinitatem. 

In personis nulla prior, 85 

Nulla minor, nulla major : 

Unaquaeque semper ipsa, 

Sic est constans atque fixa, 

Ut nec in se varietur, 

Nec in ulla transmutetur. 90 

Haec est fides orthodoxa, 
Non hic error sine noxa ; 
Sicut dico, sic et credo, 
Nec in pravam partem cedo. 
Inde venit, bone Deus, 95 

Ne desperem quamvis reus : 
Reus mortis non despero, 
Sed in morte vitam quaero. 
Quo te placem nil praetendo, 
Nisi fidem quam defendo : 100 

Fidem vides, hanc imploro; 
Leva fascem quo laboro ; 

xoi — 137. The four images of deliverance which run through 
these lines, will be best understood in their details, by keeping 
closely in view the incidents of the evangelical history on which 
they rest, and which lend them severally their language and 
imagery. In ver. 101 — H2the allusion is to Christ's raisings of 
the dead, and mainly to that of Lazarus. The Extra portam jam 
delatus belongs indeed to the history of the widow's son (Luke 
vii. 12) ; but all else is to be explained from John xi. 39—44. 
The second image seems, in a measure, to depart from the miracles 


Per hoc sacrum cataplasma 

Convalescat aegrum plasma. 

Extra portam jam delatum, 105 

Jam foetentem, tumulatum, 

Vitta ligat, lapis urget \ 

Sed si jubes, hic resurget; 

Jube, lapis revolvetur, 

Jube, vitta dirumpetur : 110 

Exiturus nescit moras, 

Postquam clamas : Exi foras. 

In hoc salo mea ratis 

Infestatur a piratis ; 

Hinc assultus, inde fluctus, 115 

Hinc et inde mors et luctus; 

Sed tu, bone Nauta, veni, 

Preme ventos, mare leni ; 

Fac abscedant hi piratae, 

Duc ad portum salva rate. 120 

Infecunda mea ficus, 

Cujus ramus ramus siccus, 

of the stilling of the storm (Matt. viii. 26 : cf xiv. 32), and to 
introduce a new feature in the piratce ; but on closer inspection 
it will be seen that in these \ve have only a bold personification of 
the winds and waves, as hi piratce of ver. 119 plainly proves. In 
the third (ver. 121 — 128) he contemplates himself as the barren 
fig-tree of Luke xiii. 6 — 9, and, as such, in danger of being hewn 
down. The fourth image (ver. 129 — 138) rests plainly on the 
healing of the lunatic child (Matt. xiv. 21 ; Mark ix. 22). 

103. catap/asma] Bernard : Ex Deo et homine factum est 
cataplasma, quod sanarat omnes infirmitates nostras, Spiritu Sancto 
tanquam pistillo hasce species suaviter in utero Marise commis- 


Incidetur, incendetur, 

Si promulgas quod meretur ; 

Sed hoc anno dimittatur, 125 

Stercoretur, fodiatur ; 

Quod si necdum respondebit, 

Flens hoc loquor, tunc ardebit. 

Vetus hostis in me furit, 

Aquis mersat, flammis urit : 130 

Inde languens et afflictus 

Tibi soli sum relictus. 

Ut infirmus convalescat, 

Ut hic hostis evanescat, 

Tu virtutem jejunandi 135 

Des infirmo, des orandi : 

Per haec duo, Christo teste, 

Liberabor ab hac peste; 

Ab hac peste solve mentem, 

Fac devotum, pcenitentem; uo 

Da timorem, quo projecto, 

De salute nil conjecto; 

132 Tibi soli\ Cf. Matt. xvii. 16: 'I spake to thy disciples 
that they should cast him out, and they could not.' It is as though 
he would say, ' Man's help is vain ; Thou must heal me, or none.' 

137, 138. Cf. Matt xvii. 21. 

141. Da timoreni\ This and the following line must be ex- 
plained by I John iv. 18 : Perfecta caritas foras mittit timorem. 
He asks for the fear which is the beginning of wisdom, but this 
only as introducing the love, which at last, casting out the fear, 
shall give him a confident assurance of salvation. Thus Augustine 
{ln 1 Ep. Joh. iv. 18) : Sicut videmus per setam introduci linum, 
quando aliquid suitur, seta prius intrat, sed nisi exeat, non suc- 
cedit linum ; sic timor primo occupat mentem, non autem ibi 
remanet timor, quia ideo intravit, ut introduceret caritatem. 


Da fidem, spem, caritatem; 

Da discretam pietatem ; 

Da contemptum terrenoram, 145 

Appetitum supernorum. 

Totum, Deus, in te spero ; 

Deus, ex te totum quaero. 

Tu laus mea, meum bonum, 

Mea cuncta tuum donum : 150 

Tu solamen in labore, 

Medicamen in languore \ 

Tu in luctu mea lyra, 

Tu lenimen es in ira \ 

Tu in arcto liberator, 155 

Tu in lapsu relevator; 

Motum praestas in provectu, 

Spem conservas in defectu; 

Si quis laedit, tu rependis; 

Si minatur, tu defendis : 160 

Quod est anceps tu dissolvis, 

Quod tegendum tu involvis. 

Tu intrare me non sinas 

Infernales ofncinas; 

Ubi mceror, ubi metus, 165 

Ubi fcetor, ubi fletus, 

Ubi probra deteguntur, 

Ubi rei confunduntur, 

Ubi tortor semper caedens, 

Ubi vermis semper edens; 170 

Ubi totum hoc perenne, 

Quia perpes mors gehennae. 

Me receptet Syon illa, 
Syon, David urbs txanquilla, 


Cujus faber Auctor lucis, 175 

Cujus portae lignum crucis, 
Cujus muri lapis vivus, 
Cujus custos Rex festivus. 
In hac urbe lux solennis, 
Ver aeternum, pax perennis: 180 

In hac odor implens caelos, 
In hac semper festum melos ; 
Non est ibi corruptela, 
Non defectus, non querela ; 
Non minuti, non deformes, 185 

Omnes Christo sunt conformes. 
Urbs caelestis, urbs beata, 
Super petram collocata, 
Urbs in portu satis tuto, 
De longinquo te saluto, 190 

Te saluto, te suspiro, 
Te affecto, te requiro. 
Quantum tui gratulantur, 
Quam festive convivantur, 
Quis affectus eos stringat, 195 

Aut quae gemma muros pingat, 
Quis chalcedon, quis jacinthus, 
Norunt illi qui sunt intus. 
In plateis hujus urbis, 
* Sociatus piis turbis, 200 

179. Cf. Rev. xxi. 23. 

190 — 192. This is but Augustine (De Spir. et Anim.) in verse : 
O civitas sancta, civitas speciosa, de longinquo te saluto, ad te 
clamo, te requiro. 

196, 197. Cf. Rev. xxi. 19, 20. 



Cum Moyse et Elia, 
Pium cantem Alleluya. 

179 — 192. Thomas Crashaw's version, mentioned already, is not 
ill done, as witness the lines which follow : 

' Here the light doth never cease, 
Endless spring and endless peace ; 
Here is music, heaven filling, 
Sweetness evermore distilling ; 
Here is neither spot nor taint, 
No defect nor no complaint ; 
Xo man crooked, great nor small ; 
But to Christ conformed all. 
Blessed town, divinely graced, 
On a rock so strongly placed, 
Thee I see, and thee I long for, 
Thee I seek, and thee I groan for.' 


Ad perennis vitae fontem 

mens sitivit arida . .321 
^Eterna Christi munera . 212 
yEterne remm Conditor . 248 
Alpha et H, magne Deus . 329 
Apparebit repentina dies 

magna Domini . .296 
Arx firma Deus noster est . 258 
Astant angelorum chori . 327 
Caelum gaude, terra plaude 102 
Credere quid dubitem fieri 

quod posse probatur . 290 
Crux ave benedicta . . 308 
Crux benedicta nitet, Domi- 

nus qua carne pependit . 132 
Cum me tenent fallacia . 246 
Cum revolvo toto corde . 292 
Cum sit omnis homo fce- 

num .... 260 
Cur mundus militat sub 

vana gloria . . . 269 
Desere jam, anima, lectu- 

lum soporis . . .136 
Deus-homo, Rex caelorum. 280 
Dies ir?e, dies illa . . 302 
Ecce dies celebris . .163 
Ecquis binas columbinas . 151 
Eheu ! eheu ! mundi vita . 239 
Eheu ! quid homines sumus 275 
Est locus ex omni medium 

quem credimus orbe . 200 


Ex yEgypto Pharaonis . 223 
Gravi me terrore pulsas, 

vitae dies ultima . . 283 
Haec est dies triumphalis . 157 
Heri mundus exultavit . 214 
Heu ! quid jaces stabulo . 116 
Hic breve vivitur, hic breve 

plangitur, hic breve fletur 310 
Hic est qui, carnis intrans 

ergastula nostrae . .106 

Jam mcesta quiesce querela 287 
Jesu, dulcis memoria . 251 

Jucundare, plebs fidelis . 64 
Lux jucunda, lux insignis . 192 
Majestati sacrosanctae . 119 

Mortis portis fractis, fortis. 159 
Mundi renovatio . . 155 
Nectareum rorem terris in- 

stillat Olympus . .111 

Nocte quadam, via fessus . 226 
Nuper eram locuples, mul- 

tisque beatus amicis . 265 
Omnis mundi creatura . 262 
Ornarunt terram germina . 256 
O ter fecundas, o ter jucun- 

das . . . .118 
Pone luctum, Magdalena . 161 
Portas vestras aeternales . 174 
Potestate, non natura . 113 

Praecursoris et Baptistae . 94 
Psallat chorus corde mundo 69 



Puer natus in Bethlehem . 99 
Quam despectus, quam de- 

jectus .... 145 
Quam dilecta tabernacula . 232 
Quantum hamum caritas 

tibi praesentavit . . 147 
Qui procedis ab utroque . 189 
Quisquis ades, mediique su- 

bis in limina templi . 134 
Salve, mundi salutare . 139 
Salvete, flores martyrum . 123 
Salve, tropaeum gloriae . 219 
Sicut chorda musicorum . 221 
Simplex in essentia . .179 
Sit ignis atque lux mihi . 247 
Si vis vere gloriari * .149 
Spiritus Sancte, pie Para- 

clite . . . .184 

Stola regni laureatus . . 204 
Stringere pauca libet bona 

carminis hujus, et ipsum 82 

Tandem audite me . . 254 

• Tria dona reges ferunt . 125 

Tribus signis Deo dignis . 129 

Tuba Domini, Paule, maxi- 

ma . . . . 209 

Urbs beata Hirusalem . 317 

Ut jucundas cervus undas . 242 

Veni, Creator Spiritus . 177 

Veni, Creator Spiritus . 186 

Veni, Redemptor gentium . 89 

Veni, Sancte Spiritus . 198 

Verbi vere substantivi . 73 

Verbum Dei, Deo natum . 77 

Vexilla Regis prodeunt . 153 

Zyma vetus expurgetur . 167 




Abelard . 

. 208 


• 131 

Adam of St. Victor 

• 55 


. 108 


. 104 

Jacobus de Benedicti 

; . 267 


. 245 

Marbod . 

. 280 

Ambrose, St. . 

. 86 

Mauburn . 

. 116 


. 272 

Peter the Venerable 

. IOI 


. 219 


• 93 

Bernard of Clugny 

. 310 


. 121 

Bernard, St. 

. 138 

Robert the Second, K 

jng of 


. 144 

France . 

• 197 

Buttmann . 

. 258 

Thomas of Celano 

. 299 

Damiani . 

. 282 

Thomas of Kempen 

• 327 

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Classified List of Publications. 65 

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Classified List of Publications. 69 

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Classified List of Publications. 73 

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Classified List of Publications. 75 

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